- Catholic rebellion.
- Northern nobles attempted to depose of Queen Elizabeth I and replace her with Mary Queen of Scots.
- Ultimately failed for a number of reasons.
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Lack of Foreign Support
- The papal bull of excommunication against Elizabeth I was delivered too late; the rebellion was practically over.
- Due to Mary Queen of Scots connections with France, Philip II of Spain didn't show any support for the rebellion.
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- Upon hearing that the Earl of Sussex would attack the rebels with 7,000 men, the 4,600 rebels retreated northwards to Scotland.
- Following Mary Queen of Scots movement further South and consequently her arrest, the rebels realised they would not be able to free her.
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Lacked A Coherent Plan
- Wasn't well planned and lacked a coherent programme.
- Geographically, the rebellion was limited to the North.
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- Support for Queen Elizabeth I still existed due to deference and fear.
- The rebels' appeals to the Catholic nobility failed; Lancashire and Cheshire particularly showed no support.
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Effective Government Officials
- Eg. Lord Scrope - contained the rebellion by holding key towns (eg. Pontefract).
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- The country was xenophobic therefore the idea of replacing Queen Elizabeth I with a foreigner wasn't popular.
- People weren't enthusiastic about returnign to papal supremacy.
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- Failed because...
- rebels bad actions;
- lack of foreign support;
- and the rebels' inability to gain support.
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