- 12 %
More Popular men or women?
- X2 as likley with women
- Kaplan and Saddock
- except blood injection
- 3:2 women
- Women X2
- mainly in the West
GENETIC - Family studies
- interview technique
- 49 1st degree relatives
- 31% had a phobia
- but none had the two same
- 16% 1st degree relatives
- 5% control group
- most common to have he same disorder as sibling than paren
GENETIC - Twin Studies
- 200 females twin pairs where one had a phobia
- 24% MZ
- 15% concordance rate DZ
- 31% 13 mz twins
- 0% DZ twins
- but none of the MZ twins shared the same phobia
- in adults BZ effects seem to be Short term
- in children only marginally better than placebo
- people with a phobia have an increased blood flow in the amygdala when they experience anxiety compared to a control group
Frederickson and Furmark
- When a phobic is exposed to their feared stimuli they have a startled response and increased activity in the amygdala and hippocamal areas
- not all people with phobias have increased blood flow in the amygdala - individual differences?
- Little hans
- boy who had fear of a horse
- close to mother and liked attention on own
- felt hostile towards dad - competition
- afraid of punishment of father - castration
- linked the mouth and its blinkers to the dads moustahce and glasses.
- little hans had seen a horse fall and sprall over the floor so was this the cause of his phobia?
- freud had already made theory of sexuality and was looking for evidence to support this
- researcher bias?
- dad was a follower of freuds work, and freuds evidence came from hans fathers self reports.
- Parker found being overprotective --> development of social phobia
development of agroaphobia was found to correlate with having parents who had giving lack of attention
- inconclusive evidence
- many studies indivate no relationship at all between parental rearing and development of anxiety disorders
BEHAVIOURAL - Learning theory
Watson and Rayner
- Little albert
- conditoned white rat to develop phobia
- studies grouo of people with driving phobia
- 50% had had a bad experience in car
- 50% of control group who didnt have a phobia had a bad experience
- so behavioural cannot explain individual differences.
BEHAVIOURAL - Prepardness Theory
Seligman - devised theory
Garcia and Koelling
- showed that rats could be conditioned to avoid life threating things such as , shocks, and toxics,
- but could not be conditioned to avoid things which had no adverse consequences
- found that rhesus monkeys developed a phobia when watching there parents behaving fearfully towards a snake
- found that 91% of snake and spider phobia the real problem was having a panick attack then being bitten.
BEHAVOURAL - SLT
- asked people to watch a man [experimenter] who looked like he was recieiving
- painfull shocks when a buzzer went off
- after watching the ps showed a fear response when they heard the buzzer
- even though they had never directly experienced the shocks themselfes
- danger beleifs were activated when in close proximity to the feared stimulus
- and no danger beliefs when away from it. fear increased with closeness
- people were more preoccupised with their 'fear of fear' then the actual object/situation
- examined Becks cincept with agoraphobics to a hierarchy of increasinly scary tasks. ps were **** recorded and were mainly preoccupied with their current state of anxiety then their safety
- Social phobia have a higher need for perfectionism, and had lower perceptions of their social ability.He beleive CBT explains why some are more prone.
DIATHESIS STRESS MODEL
Holmes and Rahe and Kobasa
- explained the cumulative effect of daily hassles and minor life events to add to the problems of vulnerability factors
Kleiner and Marshal
- 84% of agoraphobics has family problems prior to there first panick attack