EXPERIMENTS for EXPLANATION

Experiments for

  • Specific
  • Social
  • Agoraphobia
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Prevelence

Specific

  • 12 %
  • Kessler

Social

  • 12%
  • Kessler

Agoraphobia

  • 5%
  • Kessler
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More Popular men or women?

Specific

  • X2 as likley with women
  • Kaplan and Saddock
  • except blood injection

Social

  • 3:2 women
  • Kessler

Agoraphobia

  • Women X2
  • mainly in the West
  • Kessler
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GENETIC - Family studies

FAMILY STUDIES

Fyer

  • interview technique
  • 49 1st degree relatives
  • 31% had a phobia
  • but none had the two same

Fyer

  • 16% 1st degree relatives
  • 5% control group
  • most common to have he same disorder as sibling than paren
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GENETIC - Twin Studies

Kendler

  • 200 females twin pairs where one had a phobia
  • 24% MZ
  • 15% concordance rate DZ

Torgersen

  • 31% 13 mz twins
  • 0% DZ twins
  • but none of the MZ twins shared the same phobia
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BIOCHEMICAL

ROY-BRYNE

  • in adults BZ effects seem to be Short term

TAYLOR

  • in children only marginally better than placebo
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NEUROANATOMICAL

Tilfors

  • people with a phobia have an increased blood flow in the amygdala when they experience anxiety compared to a control group

Frederickson and Furmark

  • When a phobic is exposed to their feared stimuli they have a startled response and increased activity in the amygdala and hippocamal areas

Furmark

  • not all people with phobias have increased blood flow in the amygdala - individual differences?
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PSYCHODYNAMIC

Freud

  • Little hans
  • boy who had fear of a horse
  • close to mother and liked attention on own
  • felt hostile towards dad - competition
  • afraid of punishment of father - castration
  • linked the mouth and its blinkers to the dads moustahce and glasses.

However

  • little hans had seen a horse fall and sprall over the floor so was this the cause of his phobia?
  • freud had already made theory of sexuality and was looking for evidence to support this
  • researcher bias?
  • dad was a follower of freuds work, and freuds evidence came from hans fathers self reports.

Bowly

  • Parker found being overprotective --> development of social phobia

but

development of agroaphobia was found to correlate with having parents who had giving lack of attention

  • inconclusive evidence
  • many studies indivate no relationship at all between parental rearing and development of anxiety disorders
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BEHAVIOURAL - Learning theory

Watson and Rayner

  • Little albert
  • conditoned white rat to develop phobia

Munjack

  • studies grouo of people with driving phobia
  • 50% had had a bad experience in car
  • 50% of control group who didnt have a phobia had a bad experience
  • so behavioural cannot explain individual differences.
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BEHAVIOURAL - Prepardness Theory

Seligman - devised theory

Garcia and Koelling

  • showed that rats could be conditioned to avoid life threating things such as , shocks, and toxics,
  • but could not be conditioned to avoid things which had no adverse consequences

Mineka

  • found that rhesus monkeys developed a phobia when watching there parents behaving fearfully towards a snake

Mcnally

  • found that 91% of snake and spider phobia the real problem was having a panick attack then being bitten.
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BEHAVOURAL - SLT

Bandura

  • asked people to watch a man [experimenter] who looked like he was recieiving
  • painfull shocks when a buzzer went off
  • after watching the ps showed a fear response when they heard the buzzer
  • even though they had never directly experienced the shocks themselfes
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COGNITIVE BEHAVIOURAL

Beck

  • danger beleifs were activated when in close proximity to the feared stimulus
  • and no danger beliefs when away from it. fear increased with closeness
  • people were more preoccupised with their 'fear of fear' then the actual object/situation

Williams

  • examined Becks cincept with agoraphobics to a hierarchy of increasinly scary tasks. ps were **** recorded and were mainly preoccupied with their current state of anxiety then their safety

Alden

  • Social phobia have a higher need for perfectionism, and had lower perceptions of their social ability.He beleive CBT explains why some are more prone.
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DIATHESIS STRESS MODEL

Holmes and Rahe and Kobasa

  • explained the cumulative effect of daily hassles and minor life events to add to the problems of vulnerability factors

Kleiner and Marshal

  • 84% of agoraphobics has family problems prior to there first panick attack
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