Experimental Investigations - Laboratory Experimen
- Conducted in a highly controlled enviroment (often a laboratory).
- The IV is directly manipulated by the researcher, the DV is measured and the researcher aims to control all CVs.
- Testing for cause and effect (being able to prove that the change in the DV was caused by the manipulation of the IV).
- Control over confounding variables as the enviroment is highly controlled.
- Lack of ecological validity (unable to generalise the findings from such an artificial, controlled enviroment to the real world).
- Demand characteristics whereby the participant behaves artifically in accordance with what they think the researcher is looking for.
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- Conducted in a natural setting (workplace or school).
- The IV is directly manipulated, the DV is measured and there is an attempt to control the CVs.
- Improved ecological Validity (because of the natural setting).
- Testing for cause and effect.
- Less control over the CVs (compared to a laboratory experiment).
- Time and cost consuming (because of the natural setting).
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Natural Experiments (quasi-experiments)
- Conducted in a natural setting (workpace or school).
- Wait for a naturally occuring change in the IV and measuring the DV.
- No Control over the CVs.
- High ecological Validity (natural enviroment and lack of manipulation of any variables by the researcher).
- Few demand characteristics.
- Ethical Problems (difficult to obtain full consent).
- Impossible to replicate due to waiting for the IV to occur naturally.
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Non-Experimental Investigations - Correlational An
- Measures the relationship between two co-variables.
- Correlation coefficients range from +1 to -1.
- +1 indicates a perfect possitive correlation (as on variable increases, so does the other).
- -1 indicates a perfect negative correlation (as one increases, the other decreases).
- Measures the strength and direction of relationships (use of correlation coefficient).
- measure several variables at once.
- Issue of casuality (cause and effect can't be established by any non-experimental investigation).
- Misinterpretation of Data.
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- The scrutiny of ongoing behaviour in its natural setting.
- Participant observation - the researcher joins the group under investigation.
- Non-Participant observation - the researcher remains external from the group.
- Behaviour sampled through time sampling or event sampling.
- High ecological validity.
- Good exploratory/preliminary research tool.
- Controlling variables
- Ethical issues (can't tell participants because of demand characteristics).
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- Using a Pen and Paper method.
- Questions can be opened or closed.
- The questions must not be leading, ambiguous, double-barrelled or contain jargon.
- Simplicity (easiest type of research conducted).
- Ease of analysis (from closed data as the questions are quantitative).
- Untruthful answers (because of demand characteristics).
- Leading questions.
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- Can be structured, unstructured or semi-structured.
- Structured produces quantitative data.
- Unstructured and Semi-structured produces qualitative data.
- Conducted face to face
- Recorded through writting or tape.
- Flexibility (especially semi-structured and unstructed where questions can be added at any time).
- Ability to identify personal aspects of behaviour.
- Demand Characteristics.
- Difficulty in analysis of data which could lead to misinterpretation.
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- Detailed accounts of one individual or a few individuals.
- Researcher will try to get as much information as possible from each individual.
- These include personal history, background, test results, personality ratings etc.
- Extremely detailed
- Ability to indentify personal aspects of behaviour.
- Demand Characteristics.
- Difficulty in analysing data as the data will be vast.
- Hard to generalise to other people because it is specific data.
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