exercise therapy

Mlacnik et al 2006


  • 29 overweight dogs with osteoarthritis confirmes by clinical and radiographic exam
  • dogs allocated to two groups
    • both groups given calorie deficit
    • both groups given massage and daily lead walks
    • one group given bi weekly physio


  • arthritis improved more in the physio group


  • all dogs given same feed
  • group 1- 11 hindlimb, 3 forelimb, group 2- 7 hindlimb, 8 forelimb
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holler et al 2010


  • 8 dogs with no clinical abnormalities. dogs assessed using treadmill on uphill and downhill walking, low obstacles and flat surface in one session


  • uphill
    • greater flexion in hip joint. less extension in stifle joint
  • downhill
    • significant decrease in hip joint flexion. increased flexion in elbow and tarsal joints. increased extension in carpal and stifle joints
  • obstacle
    • considerable increase in extension in carpal and stifle joints. considerable increase in flexion in elbow, carpal, stifle and tarsal joints

critique- tube bandage used to prevent concealment of markers by hair (could affect locomotion). treatments in same order. not much data due to low sample size and single session.

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greve et al 2015


  • 63 sports horses presumed to be sound
  • asymmetry in spine measured by flexible curve ruler
  • thoracolumbar shape measured before tacking up and after 30 minutes of  horses normal exercise


  • biggest difference found in t48
  • back changes associated with poor fitting saddles and good riders


  • convenience sample
  • repeated in 5 horses
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tabor and williams 2018

review article

all current data on muscles use in horses collected in horses without pain

  • results may not be relevant to pathological horses undergoing treatment
  • caution should be used when using pathological horses

currently no info on how horses muscles activate when turning

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