What is meant by cultural diversity?
Different cultural, religious and ethnic groups have different family structures. For Example. there are a higher proportion of female-headed families among African-Caribbean households.
Explain what is meant by cohabitation.
Living together as a couple without marriage
Explain what is meant by the term serial monogamy.
Serial monogamy is a series of monogamous. Found in Europe and the US, where there are, high rates of divorce and remarriages.
Explain what is meant by polygamy.
Polygamy is marriage to more than one partner at any one time.
Explain the term 'genderquake'.
The genderquake is a shake up of the gender roles, women are changing priorities from staying at home with the children to choosing careers and education first.
Explain the term empty shell marriage.
An empty shell marriage is one, where the partners are staying together for the sake of children or financial issues, there is no love left within the relationship, yet they stay together. The marriage is like an empty shell.
Suggest 2 reasons for the decline in the rate of marriage.
- Other alternatives such as, cohabitation are more socially acceptable
- The genderquake, women are changing priorities
- Women no longer financially dependent on men (not necessary to get married)
- Experiences in childhood put people off marriage in future
- Beck & Beck-Gersheim - Individualism, people now have more choice, more alternative family units.
Suggest 2 reasons why second marriages are more likely to end in divorce.
Second marriages are more likely to end in divorce because people are looking for the perfect partner. People who've been in a previous marriage will not put up with the same things in the new marriage and will be less reluctant to divorce.
Explain what is meant by 'net migration'
'net migration' is the Immigration minus Emigration.
Explain what is meant by the 'social construction' of childhood
Social construction of childhood is the notion that it has been invented over time by society rather than occurring naturally.
Explain what is meant by primary socialization.
Primary socialization is the notion of children being socialized from birth by their parents with other people in society, to learn social norms and traditional values and better equip them to enter society.
Explain what is meant by the expressive role
The expressive role is the housewife role, who's main responsibilities are to look after the children and do the housework.
Suggest two ways in which childhood has been shown to becoming a protected, privileged time of life.
- Laws restricting child labour
- The introduction of compulsory schooling
- Child protection and welfare legislation
- Children's rights
- Declining family size and lower infant mortality rates
Suggest two reasons why there has been an increase in cohabitation
- Cohabitation more socially acceptable
- Reduced stigma attached to sex out of marriage
- Growing economic dependence of women
- Improved access to contraception
Suggest two reasons why people may migrate to the United Kingdom
- To join family
- To escape conflict
- Political asylum
- To access state welfare provision (better health, housing benefits)
- To study/access education
Suggest two ways in which government policies and/or laws may shape the experiences of children
- Civil partnerships
- Welfare benefits
- Social services provision
- Child protection (Laws restricting child labour)
Suggest three reasons for the decrease in the death rate since 1900
- Higher living standards
- Better sanitation
- Improved healthcare
- Medical advances
- Safer working conditions
- Improved ante and post natal care
Suggest three reasons for the increase in the divorce rate since 1969
- Changes in the law
- Changes in the position of women
- Reduced stigma
- Impact of feminism
Suggest three reasons why for some children childhood may not be a positive experience
- Live in poverty
- Experience Divorce
- Be subject to abuse by adults
- Be bullied
- Suffer health issues
- Have to work or act as a carer
Identify three ways in which greater ethnic diversity has contributed to family diversity
- Number of extended families increase
- The proportion of lone-parent families
- Attitudes towards marriage
- The number of children in a family
- Relationships between children and parents
Identify three reasons why the birth rate has fallen since 1900
- Fall in the infant mortality rate
- Women now prioritize their career
- Children financially dependent for longer
- Improved contraception
- Growth of the child centered society
Suggest two ways in which 'family life may have a harmful affect in women'
- Suffer from domestic violence
- Be excluded from decision making
- Have to sacrifice a career
- Have a dual burden of housework and paid work
- Be expected to care for relatives
Explain the difference between a family and a household
A family consists of people who are related by blood, marriage or kinship ties whereas a household is one person living alone or a group of people who live communally, at the same address and share living arrangements.
Suggest two reasons why lone parent families are more likely to be headed by a female
- Women are more liking to gain custody
- It is the cultural norm for women to bring up the children
- Fathers may be less likely to give up work when a child is born
- Father may have abandoned mother before birth
Suggest two reasons why there has been an increase in one person households
- Increase in divorce
- Increase geographical mobility
- Less social Stigma
- People marrying later
- Women more able to pursue career
- Rise in affluence
Explain the difference between the birth rate and the fertility rate
The birth rate is the number of live births per 1000 of the population per year and the fertility rate is the average number of children a women has in her child bearing years 15-44.
Suggest two reasons why women may delay having children
- Women may chose their career first
- Women may prioritize education first
- Couples may feel the need to save up
- The age of first marriage is rising
- Advances in reproductive technology