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presentational techniques.

F ont size and style( bold, italics, LARGE)

I mages or illustratuions, charts or diagrams.

S logan/ logo- a catchy phrase/ emblem.

H eading and subheadings

C olour- connotations/ association

L ayout- the way a text is constructed/ position

U nderlining- for emphasis.

B oxed text (Framing lines, shapes, quotations and key information)

B ullet points and numbering.

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Language techniques.

hetorcal questions? (involve and engage you)

Emotive words. (+ or - appeal to reader's feelings)

Assertion (bold, strong statement)

Poetic technques (simile,metaphor, allteration ...)

Repetition (of words, phrases, sentence structures)

Opinion (fact/ opinion & fact blends)

Personal address: 'you'/ 'you'- speaking to the reader.

Exaggeration (extreme exaggeration is hyperbole)

Statistics (figures, numbers, %)


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T ext type- what is it?

A udience- who is it aimed at?

P urpose- why has it been written for?

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why has the text been written.

is it to:

  • Inform
  • Explain
  • Describe
  • Argue
  • Persuade
  • Instruct
  • Advise
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who has the text been written for?

  • Gender
  • Class
  • Eduction
  • Occupation
  • Interests
  • Age
  • Other
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P oint- identify the technique

E vidence- prove it! Find something in the text.

E xplanation- why has the technique been used? Link your reason to the audience and purpose.

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Comparative connective similarity.

Compare- show a similarity or add a point.

  • Also
  • Moreover
  • Both
  • Not only
  • In addition
  • Addititionally
  • As well
  • In a similar way
  • Furthermore
  • Even
  • Indeed
  • Similarly
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Compartive connective difference.


  • However
  • In contrast
  • By contrast
  • yet
  • where as
  • instead
  • But
  • Never the less
  • Though
  • Alternstively
  • Anyway
  • On the contrary
  • Rather
  • IN spite of this
  • On the other hand
  • In fact
  • Even so
  • Differs form
  • In other respects
  • Elsewhere
  • In the respect.
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