EVOLUTIONARY EXPLANATIONS OF HUMAN AGGRESSION

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EVOLUTIONARY EXPLAN. HUMAN AGGRESSION

Evolutionary psychologists argue reprod. challenges faced by ancestors led to evolved sex differences inc. sex diffs. in jealousy --> DALY & WILSON: men several strategies 2 stop women commiting adultery .. jealousy is one that evolved specifically 2 deal w/parental uncertainty --> Men (unlike women) cant be sure of heritage of any children & might end up investing resources in children that are not theirs --> Sexual jealousy adaptive ..deters infidelity & minimises risk of cuckoldry--> BUSS: males have several strategies evolved to keep mate--> These inc. restricting partner's autonomy & 'negative inducements'  in form of violence/threats of violence 2 prevent her from straying --> SUPPORTED by DOBASH: majority of battered women cite extreme jealousy as cause of violence -->Furthermore, summary 8 studies topic 'love triangle' homocides 92% male-male murders & 8% female-female --> LIMITATION of summary: doesnt say how many men killed women vice-versa --> DELL SUPPORTS link b/twn sexual jel. & aggression: sex jel. accounted for 17% of all cases of murder in UK --> H/W signifi. amount of murders not aggressive e.g. poisoning

FURTHER SUPPORT from BUSS & SHACKLEFORD: men who suspected wives might b unfaithful exacted greater punishment than those who didnt anticipate future infidelities --> SUPPORTED by WILSON: women who reported jel. twice likely to experience ..

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evolutionary aggression II

violence (72% needed medical attention)--> Obvs. a link but it hasnt been made clear how large the sample was nor does it state scale of injuries .. reliability questionable--> REAL WORLD APPLICATION: findings could be used to predict future violence ..enables females to exit potentially abusive relationships before emotional commitments become overbearing

TAKAHASHI SUPPORTS claim male sex jel. linked to aggession using brain imaging techniques--> METHODOLOGY used in study highly reliable & replicable .. MRI scans= scientific, onjectve methodology --> EDLUND CHALLENGES research in this area...its limited & partial .. not specific enough in looking at who initiated sexual act that 'provoked' jealousy/aggression--> Also, doesnt assess whether all sexual acts would provoke same response

RESEARCH METHODO: studies alpha biased focused solely on males --> Women also use aggression as mate-retention technique .. displayed in diff. form than men--> Research suggest women carry out physical acts on partners as often as men do -->in UK more men die from domestic violence than women--> Further SUPPORT FELSON: US women 2x likely murder out of jel. as men were

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evolutionary aggression III

ISSUE w/ evolutionary perspective on violence = cant explain why ppl react in diff. ways when faced w/same adaptive prob. --> BUSS & SHACKLEFORD suggest it cant account for why diff. males (when faced partner infidelity) repsond diff. way --> Some men resort to aggre. mate-retention .. murder.. get drunk --> some cultures require aggression to attain status whereas others see agression as irreparable damage

Another issue of research in area = CULTURE BIAS--> Thai man battered wife to death after finding out visited former sweetheart--> W.H.O Survey 50% Thai women subject some sort physical abuse at some point in life--> H/W reliability of stats limited b/c self-reports=S.D--> figure of 50% likely to be higher women fear disclosure

Not adaptive for man to bring up another man's child (wasting resource) --> 'Purpose' of male violence towards pregnant woman .. to terminate pregnancy --> SUPPORT from animal kingdom i.e. male lion kill cubs not theirs.. breed their own..dominant offspring in pack -->FURTHER SUPPORT: frequency of violence towards pregnant mate DOUBLE than non-pregnant ... women abused during pregnancy most likely 2 b carrying someone else's child --> 50% received blows designed to increase abortion of foetus

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evolutionary IV

Link b/twn infidelity & partner violence SUPPORTED by .. risk of partner infidelity predicts sexual coercion among males NOT females --> Victims of partner **** more likely engaged in extra-marrital sex than those who hadnt been ****d--> Men convicted of **** more likely experienced risk of cuckoldry than those convctd on non-sexual partner abuse

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