- Human's head is balanced on its backbone. The Backbone meets the skull through the FORAMEN MAGNUM.
- The Foramen magnum is underneath the skull and the head is balanced on the backbone which means that the muscles are small and attached to the skull down.
- IN CONTRAST, the gorilla foramen magnum is at the back of it's skull and large stronge muscles are needed to hold it there (doesn't have the support from the backbone)
- Also, humans have short, broad hipbones which supports the body at it's origin, showing that they are bipedal.
- Gorilla as a long, narrow hipbone.
- Human's thigh bone is striaght and the knees are directly underneath the pelvis which allows humans to stand straight for long periods of time.
- Gorillas cant straighten their legs.
- Human's foot is arched and the big toe is parellel with the others, so the foot is adapted for walking.
- Gorilla has a flat foot with an opposable big toe for grasping.
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- When organisms die the soft parts usually decay which means a fossil will not be found with the brain.
- But we can estimate the size of the brain by finding the cranial capacity.
- This is done by tipping sand into the skull and meauring the volume of of sand.
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- Thick enamel = teeth adapted to eating hard foods e.g. seeds and nuts.
- Microwear (scratches on the teeth) = hard, tough food sources.
- Large jaws and bony crests on the skull would have strong jaws with powerful muscles to move them. This means that the animal can eat tough food.
- Hominids had smaller canines that apes, and this change meant that jaws could devleop side to side grinding movements, which is useful for chewing.
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