Evolution & Group displays of Aggression PSYA3

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Evolutionary Explanations - AO1

Jealousy.

  • Cuckoldry and sexual jealousy.
  • Cuckoldry is always a possibility in males because they do not carry their young, this could cause sexual jealousy if they invest in a child which isnt theirs.
  • Mate retention and violence.
  • In males, sexual jealousy was the main reason for a violent attack by a husband/boyfriend. The most violent attack by male partners was due to sexual jealousy. (Dobash and Dobash)
  • Sexual jealousy and extreme violence.
  • US sexual jealousy was most common motivation for killing in domestic disputes (Daly)
  • A summary of same sex killings involving 'love triangles' were analysed and found 92% male-male and 8% female-female killings.
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Evolutionary Explanations - AO2

Jealousy.

  • Research Support.
  • Men who suspected their wives may be having an affair, in the next year showed greater punishment than those who didnt suspect infidelity. (Shackleford)
  • The violence/evidence showed in the studies could alert friends/family to the alert signs of domestic violence and specific acts that could lead to future violence.
  • Research Contradiction.
  • The research doesnt tell us whether the person responsible for the infidelity (the one who initiated it) moderates the jealous response. Nor does it tell us if actual intercourse is important.
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Evolutionary Explanations - AO1

Infidelity.

  • Sexual Corcian.
  • Rape is known to be linked to infidelity. Sexual assault of a female mate by her male partner was directly linked to the perceived risk of her being unfaithfull. (Camilleri)
  • Violence towards pregnant partners.
  • Sexual infidelity by women can cause them to become pregnant with another mans child. The function of violence may be directed to terminate the pregnancy this would lead her free to bear the child from him instead of the affair.
  • Uxorocride (wife killing).
  • Death of a partner from physical violence may be an unintended outcome of an evolutionary adaptation that was designed for control rather than death. (Daly and Wilson)
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Evolutionary Explanations - AO2

Infidelity.

  • Research Support.
  • Sexual Coercian is more common in men than women because men are more at risk of cuckoldry. Men who **** their partners are more likely to have previously experienced cuckoldry. (Camilleri and Quinsey)
  • Women who were abused while pregnant are more likely to be carrying the child of another man. (Taillieu and Brown)
  • A study in Nicaraguan study showed that women who were abused while pregnant were beated because their mate thought they were unfaithfull and results showed the abuse was directed to the abdoman.
  • Research Limitations.
  • Evolution can not explain why males, when faced with infedility, respond in different ways, some men become aggressive whilst others get drunk. (Buss and Shackleford)
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Evolutionary Explanations - AO3

  • Gender Bias- The research used is mainly on men and male on female aggression. However women can behave violently towards men. A study out of 2,060 murders in the US women were twicer as likely to murder out of jealousy than men. (Felson)
  • Cultural Bias- The research doesnt take into account cultura variation of relationships and would be prodominantly western relationships.
  • Reductionist- These studies only take into account other reasons as to why domest violence happens, such as a personality disorder.
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Group displays of aggression - AO1

Xenophobia.

  • The fear of strangers and other groups which we arent part of.
  • The mechanisms that prompt suspicion towards strangers would have been favoured by natural selection.
  • This would have enabled our ancestors to avoid attack and so leave behind offspring.
  • In the 1980's the xenophobic political organisations such as the Northern League led to the growth of extreme right wing movements.
  • A football between Lazio and Livorno, a Lazio player performed the roman salute whic is associated with the facist dictator was shown to respect far-right fans and annoy those that werent far-right.
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Group displays of aggression - AO1

Territoriality.

  • When defending territory they act with greater violence. An example of this is the war chant before a rugby game by the all black New Zealand doing the Haka. This would allow our ancestors. to protect valuable resources they have at a home territory.
  • Football teams were more likely to win at home than away. This is beleived to be because they want to defend their territory.
  • The increase in testosterone happens before a home game but not an away game and results have shown those in a defencive position such as GK have a higher testosterone level because they feel they have a role to defend their home territory.
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Group displays of aggression - AO2

Sports.

  • Research Support.
  • Racist veiws of supporters led to increase spectator violence, violent outburst often shown towards gypsys, jews and russians. (Foldesi)
  • Crowd support was rated the most significant factor in contributing to home advantage. (Lewis)
  • Research Contradiction.
  • The crowd support has only been taken out on small groups and it is not known whether the crowd support is supposed to psych up the home team or distract the away team.
  • 2 American football teams played games with and without spectators, the first team played 9 away games and 5 with sepctators scoring 76 points but without spectators they scored 86. The other team played 11 home games, 4 with sepctators scoring 64 points and 71 without spectators.
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Group displays of aggression - AO1

Warfare.

  • Men who do 'well' in battle are rewarded with a pick of the women. Their displays of bravery and aggressiveness are attractive to women as it shows they can protect them and a potential offspring.
  • However males who 'flee' are seen to be a coward. This means that bravery is assosiated with status and high reproductive fitness.
  • Scars and Mutilation show honest visual representation of the battle and bravery they have showed and so they can benefit form the profits of showing bravery e.g women. (Irons)
  • Groups against other groups wearing peircings or scars would be important to tear them away from one group and make them visually accepted in another group so they dont get mixed up with the oppisition but fit in with their own.
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Group displays of aggression - AO2

Warfare.

  • Research Support.
  • Military men had more sexual partners than others if they showed bravery in combat. (Leunissen)
  • As humans emerged as settlers they could not moce and so fought for their land and resources. This suggests that warfare aggression displays is not biological but enviromental such as increasing population and food resources.
  • Research Contradictions.
  • Explanations are based on mating success but it doesnt explain the cruelty of wars for example why/how humans torture their opponants. Anthropological evidence suggests its deindividuation.
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Group dispays of aggression - AO3

  • Real World Application- Around europe teams have shown their willingness to want to abolish xenophobic behaviours.
    • Bundersleague- My friend is a foreigner.
    • Glasgow- Celtic introduce anti-bigotry campaign. Rangers **** rule to not sign any catholics.
    • Sheffeild- football united racism divides.
    • UK- show racism the red card.
  • Gender Bias- The idea of women warrior is almost unheard of in some societies. Its a rare exception that women do willingly participate in warfare.
  • Cultrual Bias- Studies into sport and xenophonbia are very bias towards western cultures and dont look at differences between west and non-west.
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