Evidence of Class Inequality - McDonough m/c value
- Middle class are successful in passing on values of hard work and educational achievement.
- Most sons of higher proffessionals end up in similae jobs.
Evidence of Class Inequality - Lansley
- Wealth inequality linked to tax inequality
- Rich have more advantageous tax
- Most of the 300 companies in the virgin group are registered off shore to avoid taxes e.g. Philip Green who owns Topshop.
Evidence of Class Inequality - Savage m/c & lifest
-His survey data was used to identify 3 types of m/c lifestyles.
- Postmodern = diverse interests, extravagant tastes, health conscious.
- Ascetic = high cultural capital, modest economic capital, leisure = individualistic and intellectual.
- Managerial = least distinctive, conventional activities, more country side and heritage related issues.
Evidence of Class Inequality - Roberts m/c values
Roberts - 3 main 'preoccupations'
- Service = particulary in relationship with employer.
- Career = seek opportunities for progression and promotion: linked to aspiration for children.
- Meritocracy = positions should be achieved by ability and effort.
Evidence of Class Inequality - Scott - u/c and soc
- Education: top public schools, most prestigious universities; social contact made in school/uni give access to positions of power and influence 'old boy network'. Socialised into high levels of self confidence and social superiority.
- Family, marriage and kinship: exclusive lifestyle; socialise with other u/c; more intermarriage.
- Social and Leisure activities: 'The Season' - exclusive social events e.g. Henley regatta, Ascot, hunting and shooting.
Evidence of Class Inequality - Weber (1864 -1920)
Weber (1864 -1920)
- Classes formed in the market place e.g. one group hire labour, another sell their market.
- The rewards (life chances) that arise from this help explain class. Similar classes have similar life chances.
- Stresses that non-economic factors can affect life chances, especially status.
- Economic position may be different to status, e.g. nurses lack wealth but have high status.
Evidence of Class Inequality - Murray (New Right)
Murray - Critical view of the u/c
- Lazy, workshy - 'new rabble'
- Welfare system creates a dependency.
- Underclass chose welfare over work.
- Young women see single parent hood as normal life course.
- Young men repeat pattern of absent, jobless fathers.
- Poor male role model contribute to juvenile crime rates.
X - <span style="font-size: 120%;">Murray 'blames the victim' and takes no account of social exclusion.
X - Dean and Taylor-Gooby argue that the underclass share the same values as everyone else in society and are not distinct group in that sense.
X - Saunders problems reinforced by economic situation - 'sooner or later the uemployed become unemployable'.</span>