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MUSCLES-Triceps

Name- Triceps,

Function- To EXTEND the arm at the elbow.

Location- Back of upper arm,

Sporting Example- Throwing a javelin, press up.

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MUSCLES-Biceps

Name- Biceps,

Location- Front of upper arm,

Function- Flex at the elbow,

Sporting example- Pull up, drawing a bow in archery,

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MUSCLES- Deltoids

Name: Deltoids,

Location: Shoulder 

Function: Move the arm in all directions at the shoulder,

Sporting Example:Bowling a cricket ball.

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MUSCLES- Pectorals

Name- Pectorals,

Location- Pecs

Function- Adduct the arm at the shoulder,

Sporting Example- Forehand drive in tennis,

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MUSCLES- Trapezius

Name- Trapezius,

Location- Back

Function- Hold the shoulders in place, move head back and sideways,

Sporting Example- Holding head up in a scrum in rugby.

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MUSCLES- Gluteals

Name: Gluteals,

Location: Bum,

Function: Adduct+extend the leg at the hips

Sporting Example- Pulling leg back before kicking a ball.

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MUSCLES- Quadriceps

Name- Quadriceps,

Location- Front of lower leg

Function- Extend the leg at the knee,

Sporting Example- Kicking a ball upwards,

(http://juanurbina100.weebly.com/uploads/1/1/3/2/11329699/9064055.jpg?339)

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MUSCLES- Hamstring

Name- Hamstring ,

Location- Back of lower leg,

Function- To flew the leg at the knee,

Sporting Example- Scrum position in rugby,

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MUSCLES- Gastrocnemius

Name- Gastrocnemius,

Location- Lower back of the leg,

Function-Pointing toes, helps to flex at the knee.

Sporting Example: Running,

(http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/863/flashcards/103863/png/lower_leg_muscles1327943806754.png)

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MUSCLES- Latissimus Dorsi

Name: Latissimus Dorsi,

Location- below the deltoid

Function- Adduct + extend the arm at the shoulder,

Sporting Example: Butterfly stroke in swimming.

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MUSCLES-Abdominals

Name- Abdominals,

Location- Abs

Function- Flex the trunk across the shoulder,

Sporting Example- Pulling the body down in a hurdle

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MUSCLES

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THE HEART- Vena Cava

  • Carries deoxygenated blood into the heart,
  • Largest vein in the body,
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THE HEART- Right Atrium

  • Recieves deoxygenated blood from the Vena Cava.
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THE HEART- Right Ventricle

-A large heart chamber that recieves deoxygenated blood from the right atrium,

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THE HEART- Tricuspid Valve

Tricuspid Valve-

Separated the right atrium and the right ventricle.

Stops the backflow of blood,

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THE HEART- Pulmonary Artery

- Carries deoxygenated blood AWay from the heart and to the lungs to be oxygenated.

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THE HEART- Semi-Lunar Valve

  • found in the pumonary artery,
  • stops the backflow of blood back to the heart,
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THE HEART- The Lungs

- Here deoxygenated blood is oxygenated,

-Blood is taked by the Pulmonary Circulation,

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THE HEART- Pulmonary Vein

  • Carries oxygenated blood back to the heart,
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THE HEART- Left Atrium

- Recieves oxygenated blood from the Pulmonary Vein.

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THE HEART- Bicuspid Valve

-SEPARATES THE LEFT ATRIUM FROM THE LEFT VENTRICLE,

- STOPS THE BACKFLO OF BLOOD BACK INTO THE ATRIUM,

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THE HEART- Left Ventricle

- Recieves oxygenated blood from the Left Atrium,

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THE HEART- Aorta

  • Carries blood Away from the heart
  • Largest artery in the body,
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THE HEART- The Body

-Where the blood is taken by the systemic circulation,

-Oxygenated blood is transported here and deoxygenated bloodis taken back to the heart.

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MATHS-Interior Angles

Interior = Number of sides -2 x 180

                     Number of sides

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MATHS- Interior Angles

Number of sides         Name of shape        Number of triangles     Angle Sum         Interior Angle

             3                    Triangle                                  1                        180                       60

            4                     Quadrilateral                         2                          360                       90

            5                     Pentagon                                3                        540                       108

           6                     Hexagon                                4                          720                      120

            7                   Heptagon                                5                         900                     128.6

          8                     Octagon                                 6                          1080                    135

           9                    Nonagon                                7                           1260                    140

         10                   Decagon                               8                             1440                     144

         11                   Hendecagon                         9                              1620                    147.3

         12                   Dedecagon                          10                            1800                      150

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MATHS- Exterior Angles

Exterior=               360          

    Number of angles

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MATHS- Alternate Angles

 

Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z

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MATHS- Corresponding Angle

 

F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F

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MATHS- Vertically Opposite

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

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MATHS

Mean is average, Mean is average,

Mode is most, Mode is most,

Median is the middle, Median is the middle,

Range high-low, Range high-low 

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MATHS

Brackets

Indicies

Division

Multiplication

Addition

Subtraction

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MATHS- Expressions

Expression:

         -only has number and letters,

        - No equals sign,

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MATHS- Formulas

FORMULAS-     

  • MORE THAN ONE LETTER,
  • HAS AN EQUALS SIGN,
  • EG: VOLUME= LWH,
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MATHS- Equations

-One letter,

-Equals sign,

- One correct answer,

- eg: 2x-4=12

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MATHS

- x - =  -

+ x + = +

- x + = -

- x + = -

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MATHS- Identity

  •  The right side and the left side equal the same.
  • eg: 5(p+3) + 2p = 7p +15

            7p + 15= 7p + 15

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MATHS- Triangles

Equilateral Triangle :

- 3 same lengths,

- angles of 60.                    Isosceles Triangle

     Right angle triangle       -equal lengths,- right angle                   - two angles the same,

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MATHS

     

 

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Mitosis

Mitosis is the process of making new cells, new cells are need to replace old, dying ones.

  • Cells divide where the body needs to:

-replace worn out cells,

-repair damaged tissue.

  •  Cells are cloned and copied this is by ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION,
  • Occurs every where in the body,

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MEIOSIS

  • Has two divisions,
  • Happens in sex organs- Ovaries + testies,
  • Results in variation + differences.
  • MAKES HAPLOID CHROMOSOMES

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Diffusion

- Particles go from a high concentration to a low concentration,

- increasing temperature can make them diffuse faster,

-Across a Partially Permable Membrane,

- Particles move along a concentration gradient,

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Osmosis

-When water moves from a high concentration to a low concentration,

-Through a partially permable membrane,

-Diffusion of water

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Chromosome Pairs

  • Humans have 46 chromosomes,
  • Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes,
  • 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex cells,

  • A karotype is a photo of all the pairs of chromosomes
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Chromosome related diseases

DOWN SYNDROME

- AN EXTRA CHROMOSOME,

- 27 CHROMOSOMES,

Turner's Syndrome:

  • No Y sex cell,
  • a single sex cell,
  • 25 chromosomes
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Active Transport

-low concentration- high concentration using energy,

-Semi permable membrane,

-Energy from aerobic respiration used to move the substances.

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Stem Cells

  • Unspecialised cells,
  • used in medical treatment,
  • found in embroyos + adult bone marrow and fat,
  • They can repair or replace damaged tissue
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Animal Cells

-Cell Membrane- Controls what goes in and out of the cell,

-Nucleus- Controls what goes on in the cell, contains DNA,

- Cytoplasm- Where all the chemical reactions happen,

-Ribosomes- Protein Synethesis,

-Mitchondria- Where respiration takes place,

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Plant Cells

  • Cell Wall- protects the cell
  • Cell Membrane- Controls what goes in and out of the cell,
  • Nucleus- controls what goes on in the cell. Contains DNA,
  • Chloroplasts- contains chlorophyll + is the site of photosynthesis,
  • cytoplasm- where chemical reactions happen,
  • Vacuole- Contains SAP. Supports the cell
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Equations

Q =I x T

Charge= current x time

P= I x V

Power= current x voltage

V= I x R

Voltage= Current x resistance

E= Q x V

Change in energy= charge x voltage

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Much Ado About Nothing- Characters

Beatrice

  • NOT a sterotypical woman for Elizabethan England,
  • Beatrice's character would please females in the audience as they woukd envy how she is outspoken and witty in a mans presence,
  • But men may find her funny but wouldn't want to marry woman like her,
  • States she would never marry ( ironic because she marries Benedict later on in the play),
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Much Ado About Nothing- Characters

Hero:

- Sterotypical woman, says very little,

- Daughter of Leonato,

-Marries Claudio,

- Called a rotten orange by Claudio after he rejects he on their wedding day because he believes she's been sleeping aroung ( but she hasn't) 

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Urbanisation

- The percentage of people living in urban areas.

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Reasons for Urban Growth

  • NATURAL INCREASE,
  • Young people move to uban areas to find employment and then they have children,
  • RURAL TO URBAN MIGRATION.
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REASONS FOR RURAL TO URBAN MIGRATING

Push Factors- factors pushing you away from the area you're currently living in:

Few jobs due to machinism,

Little sanitation,

War or conflict,

Pull Factors- factors pulling you toward an urban area:

  • Employment opportunities,
  • Families moved to urban areas,
  • People think they'll get a better quality of life.
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Social opportunities of Urban Growth:

  • access to water,
  • electricity,
  • clean water,
  • better access to services - health care, education.
  • Stronger infrastructure in urban areas
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Economic Opportunities for rural-urban migration

-Industries develop- can grow,

-Industries sell goods on the international market,

-Industrialised countries get wealthier - manufactured products sell for more than unprocessed goods,

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Social Challenges of Urban Growth

  • High levels of unemployment,
  • Many who move from rural areas end up in squatter settlements ( slums),
  • Many end up working in the informal economy or underemployed
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Environmental Challenges of Urban Growth

  • Rubbish often isn't collected,
  • Air pollution from cars + factories,
  • Sewage +  toxic chemicals harmin wildlife,
  • Sewage attracting vermin ( rats),
  • Traffic congestion causing an increase in PM10 levels
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Informal Employment

-No contract,

-Don't pay tax,

-Families can't afford things ( therefore children are kept out of school to earn money, meaning the children don't get an education resulting in it being hard for them to find a job in the formal economy.

-Shoe cleaner

-Self employed

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Formal Employment

  • WORKERS PAY TAX,
  • HOLIDAY AND SICKNESS BENEFITS,
  • CONTRACT,
  • REGULAR PAY,
  • A SCHOOL,
  • A SHOP
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Mega Cities

- Poulation of over 10 million,

-More to emerge in the future,

-Due to grow in the future,

-Tend to be cllustered East of the map,

-South usually of the continent it's in,

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MUMBAI

  • longitude 73 E ,
  • latitude 20 N,
  • West of India,
  • East of the Arabien Sea,
  • Population of over 22 million,
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Opportunities of Mumbai

Education:

✨Major centre of learning,

✨Over 1,000 primary and secondary schools,

✨High literacy rates ( 89.7%) even in slums it is 60%,

Economic:

- Contributes to 40% of foreign trade + 10% of all factory employment,

-Home to some of India's specialised technical trade industries.

-Centre of Hindi movie industry,

- Financial capital of India,

- Home to many of India'd TNCS

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Mumbai's Social Opportunities

-ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY AND WATER,

-FORMAL WORK ( GOVERNMENT)

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Challenges of Urban Growth (Social and Economic)

  • High crime rates- 1/3rd of the population victims of crime,
  • Overcrowding= disease spread easily,
  • Peope depend on public transport to commute to work= crammed public transport,
  • Rationned water,
  • Lack of basic sanitation ( 1 toliet per 1,000 people),
  • Underemployment common,
  • Water pipes run close to sewage= contaminated water= diseases,
  • Many forced to work in the informal economy due to lack of formal jobs,

Government

- Because there is so many migrators, the government don't have exact figures of how many people live in Mumbai, so they can't make enough formal jobs ,

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Challenges of Urban Growth in Mumbai (enviromental

  • levels of PM10 ( leading to diseases),
  • Air pollution from cars, sewage waste and emissions from factories,
  • Rubbish frequently lft in the streets- attracting vermin,

Government

- Challenged by air pollution,

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Dharavi

In the heart of Mumbai is Dharavi - Asia's second largest slum- which land is worth 10 million dollars - 520 acres home to roughly 9 million residents in illegally build settlements.

-55% of Mumbai's population live in slums,

-limited access to water and health care,

-70% of Dharavi's poulation are self employed,

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The Mumbai Slum Electrification Project

- The Global Partnership on Output Based Aid have given 10,000 slum dwellers new or improved electricity connections.

-Before residents relied on bottled gas for cooking and heating ( this released fumes which potentially can cause health problems)  expensive + dangerous.

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The Mumbai Slum Sanitation Project

Needed because studies figured 1 in 20 people were forced to use the street as a toliet also, it was around 1 toliet per 1000 people.

  • 300 community blocked put in place,
  • 5100 new toliets built for residents,
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Incremental Housing Strategies - Mumbai

  • Residents work with an architect to design their home or even a new home
  • People given the land their house is built on,
  • In order to keep comunities together, they're involved in designing the new layout of the area.
  • A grant can be given from home improvements
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Mumbai Slum Resettlement scheme

Mumbai Urban Transport Project (MUTP)

  • THE SLUM ALONGSIDE THE RAILWAY LINE WAS CLEARED,
  • RESIDENTS MOVED INTO NEW HOUSING IN A DIFFERENT AREA:

-Apartments made of solid material,

-Beds to sleep on,

-Drainage,

-Water supply,

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The Verb: To be- Etre

Je Suis.............. I am

Tu es.................You are,

Il est..................He is,

Elle est..............She is,

Nous sommes.......... We are,

Vous êtes............. You are

Ils sont...............They are,

Elles sont................ They are (f),

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The verb: To have- Avoir

  • J'ai- I have
  • Tu as- You have
  • Il a- He has,
  • Elle a- She has,
  • Nous avons- We have,
  • Vous avez- You have,
  • Ils ont-They have,
  • Elles on- They have ( f)
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Present Tense Verbs

-An infinative verb in English starts with "to",

-Regular verbs follow a pattern,

-Irregular verbs don't follow a pattern ( they have dodgy spelling)

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Present Tense "Er" verbs

Je _______ e

Tu _______es

Il_______e

Elle_______ e

Nous ______ ons

Vous _______ ez

Ils ________ent

Elles_________ent

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The Verb; I go

Je vais- I go

Je vas- You go,

Il va- He goes,

Elle goes- She goes,

Nous allons- We go,

Vous allez- You go,

Ils vont- They go

Elles vont- They go (f)

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Months- Mois

Janvier- January......                     Juillet- July......

Février- Febuary......                         août- August....

mars-March.....                     septembre- September,

avril- April....                                 octobre- October

mai- May....                              novembre- November

Juin- June......                         décembre- December

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The simple future

1st:                         2nd                                          

 The verb "to go" +  infinitive verb ( eg manger)

Je vais( I am going)     + Infinitive

Tu vas ( you are going)      + infinitive

Il va   (he is going)       + infinitive

Elle va (she is going)      + infinitive

Nous allons (we are going)    + infinitive

Vous allez (You are going)     +infinitive

Ils vont (They are going)       + infinitive

Elles vont  (they are going (f) )     + infinitive

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How to form the Past

S                   A                    PSUBJECT + AUXILIARY + PAST PARTICIPLE

I- J'                ai                        -er verbs:You-tu           as                         er + éHe- Il            aShe- Elle       a                       -ir verbs= rWe- Nous     avonsYou-Vous      avez                -re verbs= re + uThey- Ils        ontThey-Elles     ont

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Irregular Past Participles

  • avoir ( to have)- eu                                                - boire ( to drink) - bu
  • Comprendre ( to understand) - compris                  - Recevoir (To recieve) - reçu
  • Courir ( to run)- couru                                           - Rire ( To laugh)- ri
  • Croire ( to believe) - cru                                        - Savoir ( To know) - su
  • Découvrir ( to discover) - découvert                     - Voir ( To see) - vu
  • Devoir ( to have to) - dû                                        - Vouloir ( To want) - voulu
  • Dire ( to say) - Dit
  • Ecrire ( to write) - écrit,
  • Etré ( to be) - été,
  • Faire ( to do) - fait
  • Lire (to read) - lu
  • Mettre ( To put ) - mis
  • Offrir (To offer) - offert
  • Ouvrir ( To open) - ouvert
  • Pouvoir ( To be able to) - pu
  • Predre ( to take) - pris,
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MR V DREAMPANTS ( Past tense with être)

Monter ( Monté) to climbRetourner (retourné) to return

Venir (venu) to come

Descendre ( descendu) to go down Rester( resté) to stayEntre (entré) to enterAller (allé) to goMourir ( mort) to die Partir ( parti) to leaveArriver (arrivé) to arriveNaître ( ne) to be bornTomber ( tombé) to fallSortir (sorti) to sort out

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Present Tense - re verbs

Je ________ s

Tu ________ s

Nous______ ons

Vous_______ ez

Ils ________ent

Elles_______ent

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Present tense -Ir Verbs

  • je ------- is
  • tu------ is
  • il---------it
  • elles -------it
  • nous ------- issons
  • vous------ issez
  • ils------ issent
  • elles ----- issent
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Percentages

To find 10% - divide by 10,

To find 5%- find 10% then half it,

To find 1%- divide by 100

To find 50%- half it

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MATHS- Pie Charts

- EVERYTHING EQUALS 360.

1-ADD UP ALL YOUR NUMBERS

2-DIVIDE 360 BY YOUR NUMBERS ADDED UP TOGETHER

3- MULTIPLY EVERY NUMBER BY WHATEVER YOUR ANSWER IS FOR THE 2ND STEP.

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ENZYMES

  • Proteins made by cells which control reactions in living organisms
  • They work inside and outside of the cell,
  • Biological catalysts ( they speed up reactions without getting used up),
  • Enzymes get substrates in the right position to react.
  • Work by the lock and key mechanism

                           Image result for enzymes lock and key theory 

  • The rate of reaction ( how quick the substrates react) goes up when heated because there is more chemical energy converted into kinetic energy, meaning the substrates and enzymes move quicker causing a more likely collision.
  • If the temperature goes over 37oc, tthe enzyme loses it's shape ad becomes denatured.
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Amylase,

- Breaks down starch and turns into sugars, 

-Type of enzyme,

-Once heated up, the reaction between starch and amylase is quicker because the amylase gets more energy from the heat energy.

Image result for amylase

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How does PH affect enzymes?

-At PM7 enzymes work their fastest in our bodies,

-At PM2, the enzymes would become denatured,

-Too acidic= enzyme denatured,

-Too alkaline- enzyme denatured,

-Enzymes have a preferred PH to work at,

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Enzymes in Our bodies

  • The enzyme in our mouth is amylase- turns startch into sugar.
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Digestive System

(http://www.savingstudentsmoney.org/OLI/AnPpost_files/I_M2_1.jpg)

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Stomach

-- Stomach releases something called gastric juice ( contains hydrochloric acis, giving a PM 2) this kills all microbes on your food,

--Food stays in the stomach for 2 hours,

--The stomach is protected by a thick layer of mucus (snot)

--Protease breaks down protein and can be found in the stomach, breaks protein into AMYLASE . The AMYLASE is denatured by the acid and stops working,

-- Muscle action from the stomach mashes up the food,

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Digestion in in the Small Intestine

-The Pancreas makes Pancreatic juice which squirts into the small intestine,

-Pancreatic juice contains Amylase,Protease and Lipase ( all these chemicals are small enough to be absorbed into the blood)

-6m long,

-Adds more lipease/protease/amylase,

-Digestion is completed and simple foods are absorbed into the bloodstream.

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Protease

Breaks up Protein and turns it into amino acids

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Lipease

-BREAKS UP FATS AND TURNS IT INTO FATTY ACIDS ( GLYCEROL)

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Bile

Bile:

  • Made by the liver,
  • Stored in the gal bladder,
  • Neutrial stomach acid,
  • Breaks up fat droplets ( works like a deturgent)
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Equations

R = V - I

Resistance=  Voltage -  Current

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Plugs

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Plugs 2.0

Earth wire:

A safety wire to stop the appliance from becoming live,

Longer than the others because it goes into a different circuit,

 Live Wire:

Carries the high voltage.

Neutral Wire:

Completes the circuit.

Outside the wires is flexible wire- good insulator,

Wires are made of copper- conductor

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Symbols- Cell

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Symbols- Battery

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Symbols- Open Switch

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Symbols- Closed Switch

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Symnbols- Fixed Resistor

What are they?

They limit or restrict the flow of current in the circuit

Resistors in series circuits:

The current stays the same through each resistor in a series circuit

Resistors in Parallel circuits:

The more resistors you have + the more routes = resistance drops and more flow.

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Symbols- Variable Resistor

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Symbols- Thermister

 EG FIRE ALARMS

-Used to detect heat temperature,

- At low temperature, resistance is hugh - little current can flow through,

-High temperatures- low resistance- high current can flow through,

-Resistance decreases as temperature increases

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Symbols- Filament lamp (bulb)

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Symbols- Light DEpnedant Resistor( LDR)

-Used to detect light levels.

- At night- dark + low light levels =high resistance in LDR, so little current can flow,

-Bright light- low resistane, more current can flow through.

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Symbols- Ammeter

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Symbols- Voltmeter

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Symbols- Diode

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Symbols- Fuse

 3 amps. 5 amps. 13 amps. 15 amps.

Fuse

-Used to protect the circuit from a current that is too high.

-Current flows along a conductor, there's friction between thr electrons and the atoms of a conductor- the more current, the more friction-, friction causes heat ( the fuse gets hotter ).

-Fuses contain pieces of conductor that melts if the current gets too high.

-When the fuse melts, the circuit breaks.

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V-I Graphs - Diode

(http://www.passmyexams.co.uk/GCSE/physics/images/graph_for_Diode.jpg)

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V-I graph- Filament Lamp

(http://passmyexams.co.uk/GCSE/physics/images/Potential_Difference_graph_Filament_Lamp.jpg)

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V-I Graph-Fixed Resistor

(http://www.passmyexams.co.uk/GCSE/physics/images/Graph_for_LDR.jpg)

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Required Practicals- No16 Part 1

WHY DOES RESISTANCE INCREASE?

How resistance changes in a filament lamp.

AS YOU INCREASE THE VOLTAGE,YOU INCREASE THE CURRENT. MEANING MORE ELECTRONS ARE FLOWING- LEADING TO MORE COLLISONS BETWEEN ELECTRONS + ATOMS IN THE FILAMENT. THIS MAKES ATOMS VIBRATE MORE MAKING IT HARDER FOR ELECTRONS TI GET THROUGH- RESISTANCE INCREASES

(http://www.schoolphysics.co.uk/age14-16/Electricity%20and%20magnetism/Current%20electricity/text/Ohm's_law/images/3.png)

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Requuired Practical - No16 Part 1 results

Power Pack (v)          Voltmeter reading( V)    Ammeter Reading (A)     Resistance

0                                 0                                   0                                       0

3                                3.14                               0.09                                  34.9

4.5                             4.29                               0.11                                  35.8

6                                5.50                               0.14                                  42.1

7.5                             7.44                               0.16                                   46.5

9                                8.97                               0.18                                   49.8

12                              12.00                             0.21                                  44.4     

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Required Practical- No16 Part 2

Resistance in a Fixed Resistor

How does resistance change in a fixed resistor?

- A fixed resistor follows Ohms Law, which states resistance will remain constant provided temperature is constant.

- The resistance increases as you increase the voltage

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Required Practical- No16 Part 2 Results

Power Pact ( V)  |  Ammeter Reading ( A) | Voltage Reading (V)  | Resistance

0                         |     0                                 |  0                                |   0

3                         |    0.03                             |   3.23                          | 0,0969

4.5                      |  0.04                               |  4.52                           |  0.1808

6                         | 0.06                                | 6.06                            | 0.3636

7.5                      | 0.7                                  | 7.32                            | 0.7884

9                         | 0.9                                  | 8.76                            | 0.7884

12                       | 0.12                                | 11.89                          1.4268  

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Required Practicals- Resistors- Part 1

RESISTORS IN SERIES

  • the more resistors you have, the higher the resistance
  • Total resistance = R1 + R2 + R3

Number of resistors                     Total resistance

1                                                   97

2                                                  195

3                                                   292

4                                                   393

5                                                   490             

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Required Practical- Resistors Part 2

Resistors in Parallel

The more resistors added + the more routes for electrons to flow equals resistance dropping.

Total Resistance                       Number of resistors

97                                                              1

49                                                               2

32                                                               3

29                                                                4

24                                                                5

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Required Practical- Resistance in a wire

  • The longer the piece of wire, the higher the resistance because there's more collisions!!
  • Resistance- voltage - current
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Required Practicals- Resistance in a wire results

Length of wire ( cm) | Voltage ( V)  |  Ammeter (A)  | Resistance

100 cm                         1.28V              0.11 A              11.63

200cm                          1.29V              0.12A                10.75

300cm                          1.01 V             0.12A                 9.25

400cm                          0.94 V             0.12 A

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Required Practicals- Resistance in a wire results

500cm                          0.80V              0.12

600cm                          0.65V              0.13A

700cm                          0.47V              0.13A

800cm                          0.34V               0.13A 

900cm                          0.11V              0.13A

1000cm                       0.001V              0.13A

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Required Practicals- Conduction

Which metal is the best conductor?

Step 1- Place bunsen burner on to a safety mat,

Step 2- Light bunsen burner,

Step 3- Place your rod with vaseline and a paperclip over the flame

Step 4- Record the time until the paper clip drops...

Rod            Time

Brass--   1:41

Steel--    3:14

Copper--   3:21

COPPER IS THE BEST CONDUCTOR

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Required Practical- Convection

How is heat energy transferred through fluids?

Answer- by a convection current

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Required Practical- Convection- Method

1-- set up apparatus,

2-- add crystal to water using tweezers

3-- Heat using bunsen burner directly under crystal,

4-- Record observations every 30 seconds for two minutes

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Protons, Neutrons and Electrons

Protons:

-Positive charge,

-Inside the Necleus

-has a mass

Electons-

  • Negative charge
  • rotates around the nucleus,

Neutrons:

  • No charge
  • Inside the nucleus.
  • has a mass
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Ions

  • Atoms can gain or lose an electron in oder to gain a full outer shell ( that's what they all want), when they do, they're called ions,
  • if an atom gains one or more electrons, it becomes a negatively charged ion
  • if an atom loses one or more electrons, it becomes a positively charged ion
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Atomic Number

  • The atomic number tell us how many protons there is,
  • to work out the amount of NEUTRONS, you take the atomic number away from the mass number
  • Isotopes= a name is given to different versions of atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
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FRANKENSTEIN- Characters

Victor Frankenstein

-an ambitious scientist,

-becomes obsessed in creating life so much so he neglects his family for 2 years by no writing to them and also leads him to dig up bodies in a graveyard

-had a happy childhood,

-his life becomes unbearable as the monster kills his loved ones.

-narrates himself to Robert Walton.

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FRANKENSTEIN- Characters- Robert Walton

  • Ambitious,
  • 28 years old
  • Walton is the narrator at the beginning and end of the novel through his letters to his sister (Margret),
  • travelling to the North Pole,
  • Determined to succeed but also lonely.
  • Meets Victor Frankenstein and begins to 'love him as a brother'.
  • His need to succeed his voyage blinds him of his crews well-being.
  • Eventually, turns back his ship due to his crew being ill and unfit.
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FRANKENSTEIN- Characters- Monster

  • Frankenstein's creation,
  • Hideously ugly,
  • Becomes bitter and evil after being rejected by society,
  • Attacked by villagers because of how he looks,
  • Finds shelter and watches the De Lacey famly- learns watching them how to speak,
  • Wants to befriend the De Laceys but he terrifies them.
  • Murders William, Justine, Clerval and Elizabeth to take revenge on his creator ( Frankenstein),
  • After Victor's death, the monster mourns him and says he will die too.
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Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonds

  • Atoms that have gained or lost an electron in order to gain a full outer shell,
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Les Nombres

0- zéro,       9-neuf,         18- dix-huit,           27- vingt sept           40- quarante

1-un,           10-dix,          19- dix neuf,          28- vingt huit           50- cinquante

2- deux,       11- onze,     20- vingt                29- vingt neuf         60- soixante

3- trois,         12- douze,     21- vingt et un,    30-trentre              70- soixante dix

4-quatre,       13- treize,     22-vingt deux,       31- trentre et un     71- soixante onze

5- cinq,       14-quatorze,     23- vingt trois       32-trentre deux      80- quatre vingts

6- six,       15- quinze,        24-vingt quatre       33- trentre trois      81- quantre vingt  un

7- sept,     16-seize,           25- vingt cinq      34- trentre quartre     90- quatre-vingt-dix

8-huit        17-dix-sept,       26- vingt six         35-trentre cinq        91- quatre-vingt onze

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Covalent Bonding

- Atoms share electrons in order to gain a full shell.

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Frankenstein-Characters- Elizabeth

Elizabeth Lavenza

  • Adopted into the Frankenstein family,
  • Victor's friend and fiancée,
  • Beautiful,kind, caring,
  • Murdered on her wedding night by the monster,
  • She believes Justine to be innocent,
  • Becomes a mother figure to Frankenstein's young brothers,
  • Grief-sticken by William's death.
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The National Grid

(http://physics.taskermilward.org.uk/KS3/national_grid/grid_system.jpg)

Step up transfromers: step up the amount of voltage, they do this because there's a high voltage in the cables.

Step down transformers- Decrease the amount of volts to 230 so it's safe to go in homes.

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Nom-renewable Energy- Coal

Coal

  • Has the largest reserves,
  • Easy and inexpensive to extract,
  • Open cost mining damages the environment+ ecosystems,
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Natural Gas- Non renewable Gas

  • EASY TO EXTRACT,
  • ONE OF THE CLEANEST FOSSIL  FUELS.
  • PRODUCES GREENHOUSE GASSES AND ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTIONS WHEN BURNT
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Non renewable Energy- Petroleum (Oil)

- Easily converted to energy.

-Relatively easy to extract,

-Can be transported easily,

-Gases given off when burnt,

-Accidents during transport,extraction and refining cause major environmental pollution.

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Non Renewable Energy- Nuclear

  • Produces a small amount of waste
  • Doesn't produce greenhouse gases.
  • Small amounts of fuel produce a large amount of energy.
  • Waste is very dangerous,
  • Waste must be disposed carefully.
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States of Matter

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Density

Density=    mass

                 volume

volume= lengthx weight x height

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Changes Of State- Melting

Solid To Liquid:

Melting- Bonds get weaker, Particles begin to vibrate- there's more heat energy, Particles space out,

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Changes of State- Evaporation

Evaporation

  • liquid to gas
  • weaker bonds

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Changes Of State- Condensation

Condensation:

  • Bonds get stronger,
  • Gas to a liquid,
  • Particles get closer together.
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Changes Of State- Sublimation

  • Solid straight to a gas
  • Weaker bonds
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Changes Of State- Freezing

LIQUID TO A SOLID,

-Particles vibrate less,

-Bonds get stronger

-Opposite to melting.

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Brownfield Site

-An old industrial site

Often during regeneration plans, Brownfield sites are regenerated because of:

the need for housing

Brownfield sites are good site to regenerate because:

-It would make use of the existing infrastructure,

-It will increase the economic value of the area,

-Would clean up areas improving the environment and people's health,

-Urban revitalisation and the multiplier effect,

-Quality of life and housing stock can improve,

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Negative effects of redeveloping a brownfield site

  • House prices would increase,potentially menaing local people can't afford housing and the council will have a problem trying to provide housing for them,
  • Contamination risks- land has to be decontaminated .
  • Developers find it hard to find financial backing beacuse of liability issue.
  • MORE COSTLY AND TIME CONSUMING
  • LACK OF INFORMATION ABOUT SITES.
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GREENFIELD SITES

Greenfield sites is green space that hasn't got building on...

Advantages of regenerating on Greenfield sites:

  • Reduced development costs,
  • Appealing environment,
  • Clean sheet for planning design,
  • Demand for housing,

Disadvantages of regenerating Greenfield sites:

  • No infrastucture in place,
  • Difficult to get planning permission,
  • Fewer job opportunities,
  • Damages environment and animals,
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Why did the Allies win WW1

  • The USA entered the war,
  • Improvements in technology,
  • Germany's final push had failed,
  • The British Naval Blockade of Germany,
  • Civil unrest in Germany
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America entering the War

- In the summer of 1918, American troops ( fit and ready to fight) were sent to Germany to fight against the tired Germans who'd been fighting already since 1914.

-On April 3rd 1917, Woodrow Wilson ( president of America) declared war against America to retain peace in Europe also to stop any more lives ( especially American) being taken after Germany had sank the Lusitania which killed 128 Americans and Germany had said they'd bomb any ship heading to Germany.

-America had been involved in the war from the start by supplying Britian and France ( the Allies) with food and weapons.

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British Naval Blockade Of Germany

-The British Navy blocked any sea approaches to Germany meaning ships couldn't enter or leave Germany, this resulted in:

  • Food shortages,
  • lack of ammuntion,
  • lack in reinforcements (couldn't strengthen its' army),
  • Germany was unable to get access to more fuel-  leading to pwer cuts and factories had to close, this meant there was no way of making weapons.
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British Naval Blockade Of Germany

-The British Navy blocked any sea approaches to Germany meaning ships couldn't enter or leave Germany, this resulted in:

  • Food shortages,
  • lack of ammuntion,
  • lack in reinforcements (couldn't strengthen its' army),
  • Germany was unable to get access to more fuel-  leading to pwer cuts and factories had to close, this meant there was no way of making weapons.
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Germany's final push fails

- Erich Ludenorff ( a German respected commandor ) announced if the Germans defeated the Allies before the Americans arrived they'd potentially win; however the Americans arrived before they did,

-Before America came, Germany had pushed the French back so far they were close enough to shell Paris,

-The French were pushed back 60km from the Western Front (before the Americans came),

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Civil Unrest in Germany

  • 10% of hospital patients ( including women and children) died from starvation
  • A group of sailors at the German Base of Kiel refused to attack British ships on the 28th of October 1918,
  • Flu spread in Germany to make things worse.
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Change of Government in Germany

  • During the war, Germany was lead by a king - Kaiser Wilhem || ) who became king after his father.
  • The parliment made the laws even though Germany was considered a monarchy,
  • Kaiser had allowed Paul von Hidenburg and Erich Ludendorff to dictate Germany in 1916 ( both of them failed to listen to civilian givernments and showed little accored for them, this caused uproar)
  • Kaiser lost support of many German Politics due to German's mistakes,
  • He realized ermany would lose the war and therefore abdicated his throne on the 8th November 1918 and spent the rest of his life in the Neverlands,
  • Key reason to the war ending because Germnay had no stable leader/government leaving Germany falling apart and with no one to retain peace....
  • October 1918- a new Government who didn't listen to the Kaiser.
  • Kaiser was asked to share his power in Germany and there would be peace talks- he refused.
  • The Armistis was signed by the Weimar Government on the 8th November 1919 so the war would end.
  • Frenrich Ebert was Germany's leader after Kaiser left.
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THE WEIMAR CONSTITUTION/ government

  • Democratic style of Government - forced to become a democracy by the Allies.
  • Article 48- at a time of crisis, the president could take full power over Germany by calling Article 48.
  • Proportional Representation- IT WOULD FORCE A COALITION (WHEN ONE OR MORE POLITICAL PARTIES WORK TOGETHER TO FORM A GOVERNMENT) HARD TO GET A MAJOURITY. COALITION GOVERNMENT MADE IT HARD TO AGREE ( UNSTABLE GOVERNMENT),
  • People feel already "betrayed" by the government, THEY CALL THE GOVERNMENT THE NOVEMBER CRIMINALS FOR SIGNING THE ARMISTISE, unhappy with a democracy
  • Introduced in Weimar as there was a rebellion in Berlin, it was elected in Febuary 1919 after the Kaiser had left, the leader was Frenrich Ebert.
  • The Dolchostoss Theory- The belief that Germany had been stabbed in the back by the signing of the Treaty of Versailles.
  • Allowed freedom of religion
  • Allowed men and women over 20 years to vote
  • People were elected into the Government
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government

Germany 1919–1933

The history of Germany 1919–1933 falls into three phases:

  • 1919–1923

    • At first the Weimar Republic had great difficulties:

    • Left wing rebellions

    • All people were angry with it

    • Right-wing rebellions and terrorism

    • Invasion and inflation

    • Munich Putsch         

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government

      1923–1929

    • But the Republic survived and (after Gustav Stresemann became Chancellor in 1923) did well:

    • Economic Prosperity

    • Foreign Policy successes

    • Cultural flowering

  • 1929–1933    

    • After the Wall Street Crash of 1929, however, the Republic collapsed:

    • Unemployment

    • Nazi Party grew more powerful

    • In 1933, Adolf Hitler became Chancellor

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The Big Three

Great Britain------- Prime Minister- David Lloyd George:

Wanted Germany to remain stable

United States------ President- Woodrow Wilson:

Wanted a lasting peace not punishment

France---- President- Georges Clemenceau:

Wanted revenger, wanted Germany to pay for everything + take the blame

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The Treaty of Versailles

-Meetings were held in January 1919 at the palace of Versailles ( West of Paris), Germany wasn't invited to these meetings.

-SIGNED BY 27 NATIONS IN JUNE 1919 IN THE PALACE OF VERSAILLES ( FRANCE).

PURPOSE- to negotiate peace,

TERMS

  • Germany was only allowed 100,000 men in the army, 6 battleships and no airforce or tanks,
  • Alsace Lorraine given back to the French,
  • Germany had to take the blame,
  • Germany had to pay reparations (132 billion gold marks) £6.6 billion marks,
  • Astria and Germany not allowed to reunit - ANSCHOLUSS

Many Germans believed the Treaty of Versailles had been too harsh on them.

Diktat- Germany was forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles.

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Effects on Germany- Reparations

  • Germany can't even manage to its' own people,
  • Very little money left
  • Can't afford the reparations
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Effects on Germany- War guilt

CAUSED DEMORALIZATION,

GERMANS DIDN'T THINK THEY SHOULD BE BLAMED

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Affects on Germany- Disarmament

-Made them vunerable and unable to protect themselves

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Affects on Germany- Loss of territory

  • Annoyed because land was taken of them,
  • Industrial areas taken of meaning they found it harder to make money
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Affects on Germany- League of Nations

  • Germany had no say on decisions made
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Protests against the Weimar Government

Kapp Putsch- March 1920 ( Berlin) - right wing

- Right wing Nationalists ( extreme fashists) , blamed the government for signing the armistice + the Treaty Of Versailles,

-Lead by Herman Ehrhardt and Wolfgang Kapp.

-They tried to take over the the government in March 1920,

- They failed because workers went on strike so they couldn't build a new government.

-375 deaths- 345 by right wing rebellors,

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Rebellions against the Weimar Government

Sparticist Uprising- December 1918:

-Wanted Germany to be run by the working class and wanted equal pay.

-Left wing ( communists) based on communist ideas

-Lead by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknect ( both captured and killed after the fighting),

-Fought violently,

-16 Sparticists died

-Put down by the Freikorps (ex army soliders) who hated the communists

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The Challenges in 1923

  • HYPERINFLATION
  • The French reacted to Germany not paying the reparations by taking over the Ruhr ( industrial site of Germany).... violently.
  • When the German's used passive resistance with the French- they refuse to work,
  • The government couldn't pay the workers who demanded to be paid so they printed more money,
  • When more money was printed, buisnesses raised their prices- some took over smaller businesses to attain their wealth,
  • The wages in Germany went up, the currency decreased in value,
  • Money became worthless; hyperinflation,
  • From hyperinflation, middle class people and those on fixed income suffered the most,
  • Some burnt money to heat their homes ( it was cheaper),
  • Savings became worthless,
  • Government + business men benefitted from hyperinflation,
  • People blamed the Weimar Government.
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Streseman Years - Gustav Streseman- The Hunger Cha

Problem           | What did he do?                                        |        Was it a success?

HyperinflationBurnt the old currency in November 1923 introduced the Rentenmark ( Reichsmark) | People lost savings = annoyed people.

French Occupation of the  Ruhr  | Made an agreement with France, Briatin and America that Germany was to pay reparations on what they could afford, troops withdrew | Yes because France left but Germany still had to pay reparations.

Germany's Poor relationships with other countries | 1925 - the Locarno Pact (Germany was allowed to join the League of Nations) 1928- The Kellogg-Briand Pact- A treaty signed to end war. | Germany looked weak. German's wanted their land back.

Need to rebuild Germany's economy | Introduced reform to make life better for the working class. 3 million houses build. Labour exchange- job centres | Not everyone could get a job- large amount of unemployment + poverty. " Germany is dancing on a volcano"- Streseman.

Threats from extremists | Arranged the "Great Coalition", got all the groups together that wanted the same things, | Able to resist critisim from smaller groups. People less likely to join parties. Still extremist groups.

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Gustav Stresemann

 - Appointed Chancellor of Weimar on the death of Ebert in August 1923 to November 1923. 

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Stresemann's Era- Rebuilding Germany

August 1924- The Dawes Plan- 1 billiom marks per year for first year over 4 years rise to 2.5 billion per year (reparations).

The German Riechsbank reorganised under the Allies supervision,

USA gave loans to Germany to help it recover,

Germany borrowed 2.5 billions marks to rebuild.

1929: The Young Plan:

The length Germany had to pay the reaparations was extended by 59 years,

Reparations reduced to 6,600 million to 1,850 million.

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Stresemann's Era

Golden Era for Germany, things looking up...

- Cinema flourishes,

- Equal Pay, job opportunities, political rights,

-Censorship removed-more freedom

-Housing- better developed, more investment in decent housing. Less homelessness..

-10% rise in average wage,

- Women had more of a social life,

-Benefits/ unemployment insurance

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Negatives Of Stresemann's Era

  • Writers often critised the German democracy,
  • Homelesness not yet demolished
  • Women lost jobs when the men came back from war,
  • Unemployment still high in some professions:
  • Teaching,
  • lawyers
  • Married women with jobs were critised for neglecting their homes,
  • Middle Class still suffering,
  • Could make the Government look weak by allowing political writings from both sides
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Adolf Hitler

  • Born April 20th 1889 in Austria,
  • Dreamed of being an artist- his Father didn't want him, but when his father died, he applied for the Vienna Academy Of Fine Arts, however he was rejected,
  • When his mother died in Febuary 1908, he moved to Vienna and was homeless,
  • Fought during World War One,
  • Survived many near death experiences
  • Injured during the Battle Of the Somme,
  • Outraged at the signing of the Armistice,
  • Became obliged to go to a German Worker's Party meeting (August 19 1919) , here he spoke out and states Jewish people were the enemies, that they were foreign invaders
  • Impressed by Hitler' comments, Drexlerwas asked him to join the Party,
  • Hitler began giving speeches,
  • People listened to Hitler as he demand attention both in speeches and propaganda, told the German civillians what they wanted to hear and gave them someone to blame ( the Jews and the Weimar Government)
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Why did Hitler hate the Jews?

  • When he was on the streets, Jewish people seemed to be wealthy
  • He often tried sell his work to Jews or ask Jews to sell it for them and they'd reject him.
  • He doesn't think they'd contributed towards the war,
  • His Jewish luitenant refused to give him a promised iron cross
  • Disliking the Jews was not a new thing on a global scale
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Munich Putsch- NOvember 1923

Hitler and 600 Nazis seized the Bürgerbräukeller ( a huge beer hall) where Kahr, Seisser and Lossow were attending a politcal meeting, he put them into a room andd won their promises of support in a takeover plan whilst they were at gunpoint.

The three leaders were allowed to leave the building, two of the leader (Seisser and Lossow) changed their minds and organised troops and police to resist Hitler's plans.

Hitler carried on with his plan despite it being ruined, they march through Munich and were challenged by the well armed police men. The Nazis only had roughly 2,000 rifles and were no match for the police.

16 Nazis and 4 police officers were shot, Hitler had disappeared but was later arrested + the NAzi Party was banned

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