Primacy and recency effect
- Glanzer and Cunitz showed if you give participants a list of 20 words, and ask them to recall them two things happen: 1. they remember the words at the start of the list (primacy effect) 2, they remember the words at the end of the list (recency effect).
- the primacy effect occurs as first words are best transferred to LTM
- the recency effect occurs as the words at the end of the end of the list are in your STM, when you start to recall the list.
- this supports MSM as it proves that STM and LTM are 2 separate stores of memory
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PET scans (beardsley)
- found that STM is linked to the prefrontal cortex as this area is more active when individuals are working on a task that involves STM.
- this supports MSM as it shows that STM is a seperate store of memory as it can be linked to certain areas of the brain
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PET scans (squire)
- found that LTM memory is linked to the hippocampus as this area is more active when individuals are working on tasks involving LTM.
- this supports MSM as it shows that LTM is a seperate store of memory as it can be linked to specific areas of the brain
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- HM had brain damage caused by a opperation to remove the hippocampus. his personality stayed the same but he couldn't form new LTM's but he could remember things from before the operation. this suggests that the hippocampus acts as a gateway through new memories must pass before entering LTM.
- this supports the MSM as it shows that LTM is a seperate store as HM's personalilt remained the same.
- however it can also undermine MSM as HM could remember LTM but not form new LTM's suggesting there is more than one LTM store
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Schachter et al- episodic memory store
- evidence form amnesia patients suggests there are different kinds of LTM.
there are 4 LTM memory stores:
- semantic memory- memory of knowledge of the world including knowledge of words
- Episodic memory- memory of events of life
- Procedural memory- memory of skills such as learning to ride a bike
- Perceptual representation system- memory related to enhanced recogniton od specific stimuli such as words, which have been seem before
this undermines MSM as it shows that LTM isn't one store but made up of 4 stores
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- a lot of supporting evidence for MSM involved the use of lab experiments, which suffer from demand characterisitcs such as indivual differences, and situatuonal DC's and laso from investigator effects. therefore conclusions may be invalid
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