evaluation of the multistore model

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primacy/recency effect

  • Glanzer and Cunitz showed that if you give a list of 20 words to some participants and ask them to recall them then they will remember the words at the start fo the list (primacy effect) and at the end of the list (recency effect)
  • primacy effect occurs as these first words are best transferred to LTM
  • recency effect occurs as these last words are in STM when you start to recall the list
  • supports MSM as it proves LTM and STM are seperate stores that exist in the MSM
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PET scans (beardsley)

  • found that STM is linked to the prefrontal cortex as this area is more active when individuals are using STM
  • supports MSM as it shows STM is a seperate store of memory as it can be linked to certain areas of the brain
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PET scans (squire)

  • found that LTM linked to Hippocampus as this area is more active when individuals are using LTM
  • supports MSM as it shows how LTM is a seperate store of memory in MSM as it is linked to certain areas of the brain
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HM (brain damage evidence)

  • suffered brain damage during an operation to remove his hippocampus
  • his personality remained the same but he couldn't form new LTM's but could remember things from before the operation
  • suggests the Hippocampus acts as a gateway through which new memories must pass through to get to the LTM
  • support MSM as it shows LTM is a seperate store as HM's personality remained the same
  • undermines MSM as he could remember LTM but not form LTM's, suggesting there could be more than one LTM
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Schachter

evidence from amnesia patients suggests there are different kinds of LTM, suggests there are 4 LTM stores:

  • semantic memory- knowledge of the world, including knowledge of words
  • episodic memory- events of life such as a film seen last week
  • procedural memory- skills such as riding a bike
  • perceptual memory- enhanced recognition of specific stimuli which have been seen before such as words
  • undermines MSM as it shows LTM isn't a unique store as it is made up of lots of different stores
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validity

a lot of supporting evidence included use of lab experiments which suffer from demand characterisitcs such as individual differences and from investigator effects. Therefore conclusions can be invalid

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