Eukaryotic Cell components

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  • Responsible for aerobic respiration----Breaks down glucose using oxygen to form energy
  • Own DNA 
  • Produces and contains its own ribosomes
  • Crista inner membrane- gives a large surface area for chemical reactions (production of ATP)
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  • Composed of a RNA type protein
  • Unique structure (no exterior membrane)
  • Carry out protein synthesis
  • Found in cytoplasm or attached to the surface of the ER

 Can be found in Prokaryotic but Eukaryotic cells are larger and denser

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Vacuoles and Centrosomes

Vacuoles (only in plants):

  • Stores of  food, metabolic waste, toxins and water
  • Large surface area
  • allows the uptake of water (giving rigidity to the organism)


  • In all Eukaryotic cells
  • Produces microtubles
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Chloroplast and Cytoplasm

Chloroplast(plant cells only):

  • Similar size of a bacterial cell
  • Double membrane
  • Contains chlorophyll (produces energy)


  • In the plasma membrane or the outer boundary wall
  • Holds organelles
  • "Jelly like"
  • Fluid proportion of cytoplasm between organelles is the cystol
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  • Digest things (arise from the Golgi apparatus)
  • Lacks internal  structure (sacs bounded by one membrane with over 40 enzymes)
  • All are hydraulic and catalyze the break down of protein, nucleic acid, lipids and carbohydrates
  • fuse old and damages things together (recycling components)
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Golgi Apparatus

Golgi Apparatus:

  • Stack of flattened compartments where molecules are packed for delivery to other cell compartments of for secretion.
  • Next to the ER
  • Receives products from the ER-moves into cisterae-movement continues to the transide (ready for discharging)- small sacs come out on the transide (vessicles- needed in or out of the cell)
  • Can be found in glandular cells


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Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)(network of flattened sacs and tubes): 

Rough ER:

  • makes proteins for mRNA (protein synthesis)
  • two proteins: one goes to the reticulum membrane and the other goes on to be modified
  • proteins become: parts of membranes or messengers between cells


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Smooth ER:

  • Enzymes embedded on its surface
  • Produces: membrane phosphillipids, cellular lipids, sex hormones
  • Stores calcium ions
  • Transports lipid-based compounds
  • Aids liver in releasing glucose into the blood stream
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