Ethnicity and cultural distinctivness
Ethnicity- Common descent, geographical origin, history, language, religion and tradition.
Ethnic minorities in Britain are seen as from old colonial countries.
Ethnic identity and primary socilisation...
Singh Ghuman says the first influx of asian parents in the uk were concerned to trasnmit the following values within children...
- Obideance so they treat parents with respect
- Parents knew best
- Marriage partner choice was best fir through parents
- Religious training was important because it enforced respect and stressed modesty
- Role of the mother tongue was crucial.
- Ghuman found that in all asians- duty, loyalty and obligation were main socilisers.
Ethnicity and arranged marriage...
Brah says that the majority of asian teeangers felt they wuld not be forced into an arranged marriage, it was a joint decision.
Ethnic identity and potential family conflict...
Anwar suggests the older and younger generation can pose conflict risks because the older generation may feel the younger genereation becoming 'westernised' and this is a problem when e.g. girls go into education more
Ethnic identity and religion...
Religion is important in shaping the identity of young asians. It is important in shaping social identity because it gives them a sense of belonging.
African Carribean identity and dual identity
Moodood found skin colour was an important source of identity to AC youth.
They stress their Black identity to express their experience of racial prejudice from white society.
AC & peer group pressure...
Sewell argues peer group is very influential in AC youth. AC male identity is focused of being a hyper male in the eyes of their peers. This is caused by a lack of role models, lone parents etc. Street identity is influenced by MTV etc and encourages AC males to like a consumer culture.
Mixed race identity- Mix race births have increased. Tizard and Phoneix have found that 60% are proud of their mixed race identity, but it is still hard to be mixed race.
Hybrid/Dual Identity- Johal found that 2nd and 3rd generation get dual identity where they have an asian identity and a english one. Hybrid identities have also emerged, pic n mix
National identity- the feeling of being pat of a larger community in the form of a nation, ehich gives people a sense of purpose and meaning to peoples lives as well as a sense of belonging
National identity is not the same this as nationality. Nationality is a formal category and is symbolised by rights.
British national identity...
Guilbernau and Goldbatt argue British identiy is created around five key themes...
Geography- being an Island, England is different from Europe
Religion- in terms of national celebration, religion plays an important role
War- Reinforces the sense of 'them' and 'us' and gives off British theme of self sacrifice
Empire & Monarchy- Sucess as an imperial power. Monarchy- Heart of BRITISH identity.
National Identity and socilisation
Schudsen points out that the British people are socilised into a British identity in several ways.
Common language- English is central.
Education- History, Literature and RE promote nationality.
National riturls- Royal and state occasions reinforce the British way of life
Symbols- Union Jack, dress coes, Queen
Mass media- TV, mags and newspapers encourage people to identity themselves with royal symbols. Key role in re-inforcing British identity
Mass production- British fashion, fish and chips, M&S
Decline of British Identity
Walters suggests British identity may be under threat.
Celtic identity- Powerful source of identity for people in thos ecountries.
Globalisation- Trasnational comparinies dominate world trade. British identity may be diluted because globalisation causes British factories to close down.
Multiculuralism- Moodood sawthat most of second generation em groups found themselves not entirely British. Moodood also found that some AC and asians are not okay with a British identity because British people did not see them as fully British yet.
A new sense of Britishness is emerging.
They are shaped by traditional British values and also those values and instutions in a globalised world.