Ethnic Differences in achievement.

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External factors- Intellectual and linguistic skil

The cultural deprivation theory sees the under achievement of some ethnic groups asa result of inadequate socialisation in the home.

Intellectual and linguistic skills- Bereiter and Engelmann consider the language spoken by low-income black American families as inadequate for educational success. This is because they speak using the 'Restricted code' (Beirnestein). However Mirza did a study that Indian pupils do very well despite often not having English as their first home language.

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External factors- Attitudes and values.

Cultural deprivation theorists see lack of motivation as a major cause of the failure of many black children. 

Attitudes and values- Most children are socialised in the mainstream way, this instils ambition, competiveness and willingness to make sacrifices necessary to achieve long-term goals. This therefore equips them for success in education. However cultural deprivation theorists argue that some black children are socialised into a subculture(Opposing the mainstreams norms and values) that instils a fatalistic attitude (Sugarman) this attitude does not value education and leaves them unequipped for success.

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External factors- Family structure and parental su

Cultural deprivation theorists argue that failure in achievement is due to a dysfunctional family structure.

Family Structure and parental support- Pryce sees family structure as contributing to the under-achievement of black-Caribbean pupils. Pryce compared Asian and black-Caribbean pupils, he found that Asian pupils had higher achievement levels, he claims this is because Asians have a higher sense of self-worth and culture respect. Pryce argues that black-Caribbean culture is less cohesive and less resistant to racism. As a result black-Caribbeans may have low self-esteem and therefore underachieve. 

Pryce argues that the difference is the result of the differing impact of colonialism on the two groups. He argues that the experience of slavery was culturally devestating for the blacks.Being sold into slavery meant that they lost their language, religion and family structure. 

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Asian Families

Asian Families- Driver and Ballard argue that Asian family structures bring educational benefits. Asian parents have more positive attitudes towards education and have higher aspirations for their children so therefore are more supportive. 

However other sociologists argue that Asian culture can exert a very stressful influence due to the extreme pressure they put on their children, especially girls.

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Criticisms of cultural deprivation

Driver-  Argues that black-Caribbean culture shows a good, positive and strong role model for girls, from strong independent mothers.

Keddie- They aren't culturally deprived they are culturally different. They under achieve due to the ethnocentric(Seeing/judging things in a biased way from the viewpooint of one particular culture) biased curriculum.

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Material deprivation and class

Material deprivation- the lack of those physical neccesties that are seen as essential for life in society today. Working-class people are more likely to face poverty and material deprivation. 

Flaherty said that ethnic minorities are more likely to face educational failure due to low income and substandard housing;

  • Pakistanis and Bangladeshis are over three times more likely than whites to be the poorest 5th of the population.
  • Unemployment is three times higher for African and Bangledeshi/Pakistani people than for whites.

These inequalities are reflected in how many different ethnic groups are entitled to free school meals. Bangledeshi pupils have the highest amount of pupils on free school meals and White British have the lowest. The Swann Report estimated that social class accounts for 50% of differences in achievement between ethnic groups.

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Racism in wider society

Mason- 'Discrimination is a continuing and persistent feature of the experience of Britian's citizens of minority ethnic origin.' 

Rex- He shows how racial discrimination leads to social exclusion and how it worsens the poverty faced by ethnic minorities. For examply in housing, discrimination agaisnt ethnic minorities means they are forced into substandard housing, than white people of the same class, who are placed into better housing accomidation.

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