D V T & A V R
- actions intrinsically right or wrong!
- absolute law!
- actions arn't intrinsically good or bad it's the results/outcome that matter
- Utiltarianism and situation ethics- most loving outcome
- telos-end/purpose ethics
- Problem: can't always predict outcomes do the ends justify the means?
- Plato- good absolute
- Moral commands- ethical absolute- morals are objectivly true
- morals dependent situation- subjective
- Aristotle- behave between extremse
- deontological and absolute- based on duty (act moral=duty)
- knowledge can be prior analytic(e.g. 1+1=2)necessarily trueor posterior synthetic (the man is hiding) empirical testing
- freedom- only when free can we be accountable for doing/not doing our duty
- moral law- prior synthetic- moral statements, prescribe action, not concerned withconsequences
- good will- duty- not our duty to do things you can't do- ought implies can- duty is realistic
- categorical imperative- universal law- treat people as ends in themselves live in the kingdom of ends- summon bonnum
- Don't be distracted by emotions, being moral is duty
- helps direct action towards God
- logos-rationality e.g. natural law needs reason!
- intention and act that matters, both the exterior and interior acts
- naturally right and wrong
- God created the world with a purpose
- everything- final cause (look at final cause first)
- causes lead to God's ultimate purpose- we know our final cause through reason- reason is God's gift to humans
- primary precepts- self preservation, reproduction, knowledge, ordered society, worship God, work out the secondary precepts (e.g. pray) through reason
- Virtues natural/cardinal e.g. hope, faith, prudence find theses through the scriptures
- Believed humans naturally led towards destiny- real and apparent goods, humans naturally have a good nature, doing wrong is an error in reason
Utilitarianism - the principle
The Principle of Utility
The basis was creted by Francis Hutche and David Hume
The greatest amount of happiness for the greatest amount!
Act- Jeremy Bentham
- Pleasure= sole good & evil
- Justice etc are instrumentaly good can lead to goodness
- Hedonic calculus, measures intensity, duration, certainty etc of pleasure , practical
- Can be applied to every situation GG4GN! e.g. one situation OK to lie, another it's not OK to. Positive- it's flexible! Problem- can potentially justify anything e.g. sadistic guards
Rule- John Stuart Mill
- quality of pleasure - formed higher and lower pleasures, lower ps= needs/wants e.g. food/wants, higher ps= intellectual/demanding e.g. poetry/opera however the two ps need each other- without food wouldn't be able to enjoy opera etc
- communal rules- greatest good
Preference- Pete Singer
- considers most peoples preference - the maximum number of people who have preferences
- preferences are not just about pain/pleasure!
- interests and preferences are affected by outcomes and actions
- Rationality- dolphin and chimp can rationalise but an orphan baby can't rationalise, therefore you should save the dolphin/chimp over an orphan baby- Singer said kill a 28 day baby
- Problem: doesn't consider potential
- But answers simplistic theory
Strength and Weaknesses of U
Strenghts and weaknesses of Utilitarianism
- deals with consequences- flexible
- Just- democratic GG4GN
- not cold- deontological theories
- Avoids moral conflict
- relies to much on predictive value
- quantative measure
- simplistic pleasure/pain
- hedonic calculus complicated, could it be applied to real life?