Ethical thought ETHICS PRINTED

  • Created by: emmalum
  • Created on: 06-02-19 10:28

Virtue ethics-Aristotle

  • His book was called 'Nicomachean ethics'
  • Two types of virtues: Intellectual (such as knowledge and wisdom)

                                        Moral ( Such as courage and strength)

  • Reason=understanding+responding
  • 5 intellectual virtues (divided into 3 classes):

                                      Theoretical: Wisdom, Science and Reason

                                         Practical: Phronesis (practical wisdom)

                                       Productive: Actions

  • Doctrine of the mean- finding a balance between too much or too little of a quality (for example, doing too much or too little excersize can be bad for your health)
  • Eudaimonia- ultimate happiness or human 'flourishing'
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Virtue ethics- MacIntyre

  • his book is called 'After Virtue'
  • He believed that people need to be virtuous for society to work
  • He created eight modern virtues: Courage








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Virtue ethics- Ansombe and Foot


  • we can flourish if we use the virtues


  • Trolly-car analogy
  • Virtues should be used to make the world a better place
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Divine command theory

  • Arbitrariness problem (Plato) -"is something good because it is God's will or is it God's will because it is good?"
  • Frankena- If God commands us to do something, no matter how evil it may seem, we should do it as we cannot understand God's ways
  • Adams- God is good which means his commands must always be good.
  • The story of God asking Abraham to kill his own son.
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Ethical egoism

  • The idea that any action is selfish
  • Altruism-an act that is purely selfless
  • Empiricus believed that humans live to maximise their own pleasure
  • Psychological egosim- everything is selfish even if that is not the intention
  • Rachel believed that egoism endorses selfishness but not foolishness
  • Stirner believed in the union of egosits- a group of people all acting in self interest
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