Essay Plans

  • Created by: Sarahh
  • Created on: 22-05-14 20:08

Breakdown Of Relationship

4 Stages: Intra-psychic, Dyadic, Scoial phase, Grave dressing.

Lee: Discover, Expose, Negotiation, Resolution, Termination.

Duck 1984 - addition of repair strategies

Neither one explains why

Cultural bias - Moghaddam et al

Polygamy - ressurection phase may not apply. Ethnocentric bias in other cultures - discredit.

Historical bias - white, middle class heterosexual participants.

Heterosexual - e.g. co-habiting - fewer to discuss in social phase.

Should be studies as a process rather than a state. Researcher presence. 

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Parental Investment

Trivers - "any investment in an individual offspring that increases chance of survival"

Evolutionary approach - programmed to breed selectively; diff behaviour promoted.

Trivers theory - gender differences, female invests more. e.g .breastfeed 5 years after.

To reinforce, Bateman investment principle - males should be promiscuous. (Idealised)

Singh 1989 - males favour females with a small hip-to-waist ratio - indicates fertility. Youthfulness as being attractive is reinforced bu Buss - square jaw, small eyes - maturity/stability.

As well as gender diff, Gaulins and Robbins - HIF favour boy, LIF favour girls. - supports evolutionary theory.

Clark and Hatfield support Batemans theory- 75% of males would have sex with stranger. 

Species e.g. spawning

Historical bias - less dependance on men - males have more time to invest.

Buss + Schmitt - 'sexual selection strategies' - comparisons. Last: Individual differences.

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Outline and Evaluate 1 or more bio rhythms

Circadian - 24 hours Sleep-Wake cycle e.g. SCN


Human behaviour more complex - can override biological factors

Miles - failed to reset his biological clock - reliance on sedatives and stimulants

Infradian - longer e.g. menstrual cycle

Pheromones - russell


Problems with Case Studies

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Lifespan Changes/Nature of sleep

  • New born - 15-20hrs, 50% ReM. Pre-mature - 80%, 1 - 6-8 hours, 1-2 naps. 2 - adult pattern, adolescents - 9 hours, adults 7-8 (less need for cognitive development)
  • Large REM - needed: brain developing neuronal connections. Motor neurons develop.

Ohayon et al 2004 - meta review: 65 studies of patterns, 5-102 years. Sleep time decreases from 25mins to 19. 60% decrease in deep NREM - linked to restoration. Alzhiemers - dramatic loss in NREM + experience memory loss: supports link between NREM + cognitive processes.

Lack of research into middle aged - Dement - lack time to participate. Irony.

Factors - shifts, medication. Effects of co-sleeping - qualit and quantit different - research needed.

Culturally: conducted in EU. However, siestas in Med, avoid work in hot part of day: naps in day = night sleep delayed. Borely - reports polyphasic sleeping declining in Greece; only 42% adopt siestas - remains widely observed in China - research not universally applicable.

Biologically reductionist - EEG machine, should use multi-disciplinary approach. 

External validity of lab Q'd - Borbely (65-83yrs) nap - account for reduced sleep: elderly may not decrease. 

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Role of Exogenous Z and Endogenous P in rhythms

Endogenous - internal e.g. SCN, optic chasm. involved in production of melatonin.

Exogenous - external e.g. light influential in maintenance.

Morgan (end)

Siffre (end)

Studies typical of biological approach - explain behaviour in terms of hormonal activity.

Miles (ex)

Reinberg (ex)

Lab experiments

Should study relationship between the two

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Children's understanding of others

Selman 5 stages:

  • Egocentric (2-6)
  • Subjective (5-9)
  • Reciprocal (7-12)
  • Mutual
  • Societal-perspective taking (14+)
  • Applied cross culturally

Gender differences


Oversimplified - complex,broader skill

Historical bias - since dynamics of communication have changed, social cognition has also changed.

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Mirror Neurons

A particular class of nerve cell: Neuroscientists in Italy - motor and pre-motor cortex of macque monkeys - imitation

Grayling suggested morality is innate

Rizzolletti - neural activity in hands similar watching and doing. (support in humans)

Methodological issues - scans not accurate as activity recorded may be other neurons performing cognitive roles.

Not generalised to humans

Neilson and Carpenter - oversimplification - socio-developmental and environmental factors: Biologically reductionist as cannot be reduced to activity of particular neurons.

Galsee and Goldman 1998 - ability to understand minds of others; equipment.

<< experiences growing up more sensitive to feelings of others - neural plasticity can be altered by experience.

Indirect techniques - use of EEG's found Mu waves suppressed, lack of direct = hard to validate.

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Sense of Self/ Theory of Mind

Fantz - neonates have an innate preference for looking at faces.

Lewis and Brookes-Gunn - Rouge; 9 months :( 15 months :) 2 years! :D

Straino and Reid

Sibling influence

Theory of Mind

Object permanence 10 months

Autism - sally ann test

Nature vs Nurture

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