Breakdown Of Relationship
4 Stages: Intra-psychic, Dyadic, Scoial phase, Grave dressing.
Lee: Discover, Expose, Negotiation, Resolution, Termination.
Duck 1984 - addition of repair strategies
Neither one explains why
Cultural bias - Moghaddam et al
Polygamy - ressurection phase may not apply. Ethnocentric bias in other cultures - discredit.
Historical bias - white, middle class heterosexual participants.
Heterosexual - e.g. co-habiting - fewer to discuss in social phase.
Should be studies as a process rather than a state. Researcher presence.
Trivers - "any investment in an individual offspring that increases chance of survival"
Evolutionary approach - programmed to breed selectively; diff behaviour promoted.
Trivers theory - gender differences, female invests more. e.g .breastfeed 5 years after.
To reinforce, Bateman investment principle - males should be promiscuous. (Idealised)
Singh 1989 - males favour females with a small hip-to-waist ratio - indicates fertility. Youthfulness as being attractive is reinforced bu Buss - square jaw, small eyes - maturity/stability.
As well as gender diff, Gaulins and Robbins - HIF favour boy, LIF favour girls. - supports evolutionary theory.
Clark and Hatfield support Batemans theory- 75% of males would have sex with stranger.
Species e.g. spawning
Historical bias - less dependance on men - males have more time to invest.
Buss + Schmitt - 'sexual selection strategies' - comparisons. Last: Individual differences.
Outline and Evaluate 1 or more bio rhythms
Circadian - 24 hours Sleep-Wake cycle e.g. SCN
Human behaviour more complex - can override biological factors
Miles - failed to reset his biological clock - reliance on sedatives and stimulants
Infradian - longer e.g. menstrual cycle
Pheromones - russell
Problems with Case Studies
Lifespan Changes/Nature of sleep
- New born - 15-20hrs, 50% ReM. Pre-mature - 80%, 1 - 6-8 hours, 1-2 naps. 2 - adult pattern, adolescents - 9 hours, adults 7-8 (less need for cognitive development)
- Large REM - needed: brain developing neuronal connections. Motor neurons develop.
Ohayon et al 2004 - meta review: 65 studies of patterns, 5-102 years. Sleep time decreases from 25mins to 19. 60% decrease in deep NREM - linked to restoration. Alzhiemers - dramatic loss in NREM + experience memory loss: supports link between NREM + cognitive processes.
Lack of research into middle aged - Dement - lack time to participate. Irony.
Factors - shifts, medication. Effects of co-sleeping - qualit and quantit different - research needed.
Culturally: conducted in EU. However, siestas in Med, avoid work in hot part of day: naps in day = night sleep delayed. Borely - reports polyphasic sleeping declining in Greece; only 42% adopt siestas - remains widely observed in China - research not universally applicable.
Biologically reductionist - EEG machine, should use multi-disciplinary approach.
External validity of lab Q'd - Borbely (65-83yrs) nap - account for reduced sleep: elderly may not decrease.
Role of Exogenous Z and Endogenous P in rhythms
Endogenous - internal e.g. SCN, optic chasm. involved in production of melatonin.
Exogenous - external e.g. light influential in maintenance.
Studies typical of biological approach - explain behaviour in terms of hormonal activity.
Should study relationship between the two
Children's understanding of others
Selman 5 stages:
- Egocentric (2-6)
- Subjective (5-9)
- Reciprocal (7-12)
- Societal-perspective taking (14+)
- Applied cross culturally
Oversimplified - complex,broader skill
Historical bias - since dynamics of communication have changed, social cognition has also changed.
A particular class of nerve cell: Neuroscientists in Italy - motor and pre-motor cortex of macque monkeys - imitation
Grayling suggested morality is innate
Rizzolletti - neural activity in hands similar watching and doing. (support in humans)
Methodological issues - scans not accurate as activity recorded may be other neurons performing cognitive roles.
Not generalised to humans
Neilson and Carpenter - oversimplification - socio-developmental and environmental factors: Biologically reductionist as cannot be reduced to activity of particular neurons.
Galsee and Goldman 1998 - ability to understand minds of others; equipment.
<< experiences growing up more sensitive to feelings of others - neural plasticity can be altered by experience.
Indirect techniques - use of EEG's found Mu waves suppressed, lack of direct = hard to validate.
Sense of Self/ Theory of Mind
Fantz - neonates have an innate preference for looking at faces.
Lewis and Brookes-Gunn - Rouge; 9 months :( 15 months :) 2 years! :D
Straino and Reid
Theory of Mind
Object permanence 10 months
Autism - sally ann test
Nature vs Nurture