Along a coastline there are features created by erosion. These inclued cliffs, wave-cut platforms and wave-cut notches. There are also headlands and bays, caves, arches, stacks and stumps.
Headlands and Bays
Headlands are formed when the sea attacks a section of coast with alternating bands of hard and soft rock. The bands of soft rock, such as sand and clay, erode more quickly than hard rock, such as chalk. This leaves a section of land jutting out into the sea called a headland. The areas where the soft rock has eroded away, next to the headland, are called bays.
Caves occur when waves force their way into cracks in the cliff face. The water contains sand and other materials that grind away at the rock until the cracks become a cave. Hydraulic action is the predominant process.
If the cave is formed in a headland, it may eventually break through to the other side, forming an arch.
The arch will gradually become bigger until it can no longer support the top of the arch. When the arch collapses, it leaves the headland on one side and a stack on the other.
The stack will be attacked at the base in the same way that a wave-cut notch is formed. This weakens the structure and it will eventually collapse to form a stump.
All of the rubbel that has fallen into the sea will eventually settle in calm, soft water, and will forma wave-cut platform
Remember: CRACK / CAVE / ARCH / STACK / STUMP / WAVE-CUT PLATFORM