RATE OF REACTION:-
The change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit of time.
INITIAL RATE OF REACTION:-
The change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit of time at the start of the reaction when t=0.
RATE CONSTANT (k):-
The constant that links the rate of the reaction to the concentrations of reactants raised to the powers of their orders.
The sum of individual orders ---> rate = k [A] [B] so Overall order ---> 1+1 =2.
The time taken for the concentration of the reactant to reduce by half.
The point in a titration when the volume of one solution has reacted exactly with the volume of the second solution.
When there are equal concentrations of the weak acid and the conjugate base forms of the indicator.
Species with the same structural formula but a different arrangement of atoms in space.
Loss of electrons ( Oxidation Is Loss ).
Gain of electrons ( Reduction Is Gain ).
STANDARD ENTHALPY CHANGE OF NEUTRALISATION:-
The enthalpy change that accompanies the neutralisation of an acid (aq) by a base (aq) forming 1 mole of water under standard conditions.
A reaction when one ligand in a complex ion is replaced by another ligand.
The quantative measure of the degree of disorder in a system.
STANDARD ENTROPY CHANGE OF REACTION:-
The entropy change that accompanies a reaction in the molar quantities expressed in a chemical system under standard conditions, all reactants and products in their standard states.
FREE ENERGY CHANGE:-
The balance between enthalpy, entropy and temperature ---> ΔG = ΔH -TΔS. (Convert all into same units as ΔH kJ/mol and ΔS J/mol.)
STANDARD ELECTRODE POTENTIAL:-
The electromotive force of a half cell compared with a standard hydrogen half cell at 298K, 100kPa, 1mol/dm³.
A transition metal bonded to one or more ligands by coordinate bonds (dative covalent bonds).
A molecule/ion that can donate a pair of electrons with the transition metal forming a coordinate bond.
The total number of coordinate bonds formed between the transition metal ion and its ligands.
A d-block element that forms an ion with an incomplete 'd' sub-shell.
STABILITY CONSTANT (Kstab):-
The equilibrium constant between a transition metal ion surrounded by water ligands and the complex ion formed when the same ion has undergone ligand substitution.
When k=0 and the forward reaction equals the backward reaction in a closed system.
Kc > 1:-
The reaction is product favoured.
Δ ----> Δ
Kc < 1:-
The reaction is reactant favoured.
Δ ----> Δ
A proton donor. A proton can be removed from it.