Amylase is made in salivary glands, pancreas and small intestine.
Amylase converts stach into sugars.
Protease is made in the stomach, pancreas and small intestine.
Protease converts proteins into amino acids.
Lipase is made in the pancreas and the small intestine.
Lipase converts lipids into glycerol and fatty acids.
Bile is produces in the liver and is stored in the gall bladder.
1) Bile neutralises the acid
- makes conditionals alkaline
- enzymes in the small intestine work best
2) Bile emulsifies fat
- giving bigger surface area for lipase enzymes to work on
- speeds up digestion.
Enzymes ( used in digestive system) are produced by in glands and in the gut lining.
1) Salivary Glands- produce amylase enzymes in saliva.
- pummels food with muscular walls,
- produces pepsin enzyme,
- produces hydrochloric acid- kill bacteria and give right pH for protease enzymes.
4) Liver- where bile is produced.
5) Gall bladder- where bile is stored before it's released into small intestine.
6) Pancreas- produces amylase, protease and lipase enzymes.
7) Small intestine- produces amylase, protease and lipase enzymes and where digested food is absorbed into the blood
8) Large intestine- where excess water is absorbed
Uses of enzymes
Enzymes are used in:
1) Biological detergents - lipase and protease enzymes are used as they break down animal and plant matter and work at lower temperatures.
2) Baby foods- protease enzymes pre-digest the food so it's easier for the baby to digest.
3) Sugar syrup- carbohydrases can be used to turn starch syrup to sugar syrup
4) Slimming foods- isomerase enzyme turns glucose syrup to fructose syrup (which is sweeter) so you use less of it.
Pros and Cons of Enzymes in Industry
Enzymes in Industry:
- Specific so only catalyse reaction you want them to
- Lower temps and pressure= lower costs
- Not used up
- Can develop allergies to enzymes
- Conditions must be tightly controlled (easily denatured)
- Contamination can affect the reaction