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  •  biological catalysts-increase the rate of chemical reactions without being used up
  • proteins- folded into complex shapes that allow smaller molecules to fit into them
  • The place where these substrate molecules fit is called the active site.
  • As the temperature increases, so does the rate of reaction. But very high temperatures denature enzymes.
  • Graph showing pH and enzyme activity. Between pH 4.5 and pH 8, enzyme activity increases steadily. It peaks at pH 8, then decreases fairly rapidly (http://www.bbc.co.uk/staticarchive/3e166752332b7f16e1dd0f4efca373310e4706fc.gif)
  • at around 37ºC, or body temperature the enzyme starts to denature.
  • optimum pH for an enzyme depends on where it normally works. For example, intestinal enzymes have an optimum pH of about 7.5. Enzymes in the stomach have an optimum pH of about 2.

Graph showing temperature and enzyme activity. Between 0 and 40ºC, enzyme activity increases steadily. It peaks at 40°C (optimum temperature), then decreases rapidly (http://www.bbc.co.uk/staticarchive/db7ba3135d8cf5ce20b58387bf6b7784436ce279.gif)

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