The method that deals with the vocabulary system of a language.
The method that deals with meaning and how that is generated within texts.
The term used to describe how a text is logically structured to create a coherent sense of meaning.
A pronoun that usually occurs as the actor in a verbal process.
A pronoun that demonstrates ownership.
Words that carry explicit meanings and represent the word classes that are open to new additions and derivations.
Words that have less explicit meaning and serve to highlight relationship between other words.
Describing actions or events.
Describing states of being, identification or attributes.
Describing perception, thoughts or speech.
Verbs where the situation described by the verb process changes over time, for example ‘he ate the cake’ involves a dynamic process.
Verbs that describes a state of affairs rather than an action, e.g. ‘know’.
The simple form of an adjective, serving to modify.
The form for comparing two items; adjectives inflected with -er or combined with ‘more’ are in the comparative form.
Adjectives inflected with -est or combined with ‘most’ are in the superlative form.
A measure of how well a text fits together as a whole, its internal logic and construction.
When lexical items replace those already mentioned or about to be mentioned.
Referencing back to an already stated lexical item.
Referencing forwards to an as yet undisclosed lexical item.
The replacing of one set of lexical items for another.
The missing out of a word or words in a sentence.
A strict ‘dictionary’ meaning of a lexical item.
An associated, symbolic meaning relying on culturally shared conventions.
Semantic or Lexical Field:
Lexical items that are similar in range of meaning and properties.
Words with very similar semantic value.
Words with opposite semantic value.
The term for the hierarchical structure that exists between lexical items.
A socially acceptable word or phrase used to avoid talking about something potentially distasteful.
A harsh, ‘to-the-point’ and perhaps taboo term, sometimes used for a dark humorous effect.
Truly opposite antonyms.
Antonyms that are not exact opposites but can be considered in terms of degree of quality.
A ‘lower’ word in the hyponymic chain; a more specific lexical term.
A ‘higher’ word in the hyponymic chain; a more general lexical term.
The inappropriately vague, rather general answer to a question.
The giving of an inappropriately too specific answer, sometimes with absurd effects.
The way in which abstract terms are mapped onto physical entities through an underlying conceptual structure.
A pronoun that usually appears as being affected by the verb process.
Names of objects, feelings, attitudes, people or places.
Refers to names of people or places.
London, Paris, Shauni
Refers to states, feelings and concepts that have no physical existence.
Plain, happiness, sadness
Refers to objects that have a physical existence.
Countable, e.g. table
Non-countable, e.g. furniture
Shows actions, events or states of being, feeling or thinking.
Describe actions or events.
hit, run, eat, push
Describe states of being or are used to identify.
be, appear, become
Describe perception, thought or speech.
Think, speak, love
Processes where there is a change in state over time.
Paint, remove, eat
Processes where the situation remains constant.
love, hold, believe
Adds detail to nouns.
The main stem of the adjective.
Hot, cold, small, thin
Comparing words saying something is ___ than something else
Hotter, colder, smaller, thinner
Saying something is the ultimate.
Hottest, coldest, smallest, thinnest
Some longer adjectives use more for their comparative and superlative forms
Example: more beautiful, more handsome
Some longer adjectives use most for their comparative and superlative forms.
Most beautiful, most handsome
Some have irregular forms
good and bad- good, better, best, bad ,worse, worst
Adds detail to verbs and other adverbs.
Add Information/ Modify Verb Adverbs:
I ran quickly
Modify Adjctives/ Other Adverbs:
I ran very quickly
Modify Whole Sentences Adverbs:
interestingly, the town is small
Example: more gracefully
Example: most gracefully
Positioned in front of nouns to add detail or to clarify.
Example: The, a, an, my
Links words, phrases and clauses together.
Example: and, but, although, also
Shows relation in terms of time or place.
Example: in, at, by, on
Replaces nouns and can also refer forwards and backwards to them in longer stretches of text.
I, you, she, they
Singular First person I Me My Second person You You Your Third person He/she Him/her His/her Plural First person We Us Our Second person You You Your Third person They Them Their
my, his, our, their
myslef, himself, themselves
this, these, that, those
who, whom, which
Addition: and, also, furthermore
Consequence: so, therefore, consequently
Comparative: similarly, however, whereas
Temporal: later, next, now
Enumeration: firstly, then, finally
Summative: in conclusion, on the whole, with all things considered