An utterance and response that are often seen together:
A: "How are you?"
B: "I'm fine, thanks."
A type of word class. Adjectives refer to words that describe a noun.
Another word class. Adverbs describe the verbs and usually end in "-ly". For example: she walked quickly.
Repetition of a series of consonant or vowel at the beginning of words.
Repetition of the vowel sound in a series of words.
Helps to establish when the action took place.
e.g. The cat was sitting beside the bowl.
"Was" tells us it's in the past.
Using a series of pronouns before introducing the proper noun.
"He's the current World No. 2. He's known as 'the Rocket'. He comes from the UK. It's Ronnie O'Sullivan!"
The language of speech.
From "con" which means "with", theses are the psychological associations that come with words.
The type of sentence function that states something/describes something.
The dictionary definition of a word.
The structure of the text, including beginning, middle, end, any ordering.
Missing out letters or sounds.
Missing words out, because the listener/reader can fill in the gaps.
Language (often hyperbole) used to evoke emotions within the reader.
A word or phrase used to soften a harsh reality. For example, "passed away" is a euphemism of "death."
Starting again to correct yourself.
Similar to voiced pause, but actually adding a word. For example: "kinda", "like", "and stuff".
Exaggeration. (pronounced: hi-per-bo-lee)
Individual language. Accent, pitch, favourite phrases, etc. all make up someone's personal language style.
The type of sentence function that commands.
The type of sentence function that is a question.
Individual word choice.
A general term for anything that removes fluency in spoken language - such as voiced pauses, non-voiced pauses, fillers, false starts.
Where a word sounds like what it's describing. For example: crash, smash, hiss, bang...
From "para" which means "outside" and "linguistic" which is about language, paralinguistic features are features of conversation outside of the speech. For example: facial gestures, posture, eye contact, laughing...
A sentence where the object is being acted upon to it by the subject.
E.g. The ball was kicked by the boy.
Repeating sentence structure.
Giving something inhuman, human qualities.
From "-ology" meaning "the study of" and "phone" meaning sound, this is the study of sound.
The underlining meaning.
Used to position things in a sentence.
Examples are: to, under, in, behind, on, by, at...
Aspects of voice (pitch, volume, intonation, stress) that contribute to understanding.
Semantics is concerned with meaning. When a group of words are together with similar connotations, they're part of one "theme" or semantic field.
What the sentence does. There are three basic functions: interrogative, imperative, declarative.
Voiced Pause/Unvoiced Pause
Voiced pause: "erm", "um", "err".
Unvoiced pause is naturally a pause but without a sound.