The area of language study that deals with the formation of words from similar units called morphemes.
The smallest unit of grammatical meaning. Morphemes can be words in their own right or combine with other morphemes to form lexical units.
Linguistic Rank Scale:
A system for showing the relationship between levels of language units. The movement from left to right indicates that a unit is structured from that which precedes it, for example clauses are structured from phrases.
Prescriptive Approach/ Attitude:
An approach that concentrates on how language ought to be structured (written or spoken) and sees alternative patterns or versions as deviant and inferior.
Descriptive Approach/ Attitude:
An approach to language study that focuses on actual language use.
A group of words centred around a head noun.
The key components of a phrase.
Modifying that occurs before the head noun.
A word, usually an adjective or a noun used attributively, that qualifies the sense of a noun. Adverbs of comment also act as modifiers, e.g. obviously.
Further information to complete the phrase.
A modifying phrase or lexical item that occurs after the head noun in a noun phrase.
A phrase consisting of a preposition and an added noun phrase.
The verb that details the main process in a verb phrase.
A verb that supports or ‘helps’ another; it shows tense or modality.
A small item used to form negative construction, for example not.
A necessary part of the verb phrase, that is the main verb.
An additional part of the verb phrase that may be present, for example an extension or negating particle.
Used to denote tense changes: ‘do’; ‘be’; ‘have’.
Modal Auxiliary Verb:
A verb that never appears on its own and is used to express possibility, probability, certainty, necessity or obligation: will; would; can; could; shall; should; may; might; must.
A combination of a primary auxiliary and another verb part.
A verb that can attach to another to form a chain.
The individual or entity responsible for the action.
The responsibility for, or cause of, an action.
A phrase with an adjective as its head, for example ‘very big’.
A phrase with an adverb as its head, for example ‘very quickly’.
A group of lexical items centred round a verb phrase.
Patterns produced by writers using certain types of clause for impact and effect.
A clause with a verb that has two objects: one direct and other indirect.
An object directly affected by a verb process, for example in ‘I gave him the pen’, ‘pen’ is directly affected by the giving and is the direct object.
An object indirectly affected by a verb process, for example in ‘I gave him the pen’, ‘him’ is the indirect object.
A verb that requires two objects to form a double-object construction.
A verb that only requires one object.
A verb process such as ‘yawned’ or ‘slept’ that has no object.
The kind of sentence(s) used by a writer for impact and effect.
A sentence consisting of a single main clause.
A sentence containing two or more main clauses, connected by coordinating conjunctions, or something just separated by punctuation (semicolon).
Words such as and, but or that link clauses to form compound sentences
A sentence containing a main clause with one or more subordinate or dependant clauses, often connected with a subordinating conjunction.
A clause that can stand independently and make sense on its own.
A clause that is dependent on another to complete the full meaning of a sentence.
Words such as because, although and while that link a main clause to a number of subordinate clauses in complex sentences.
A sentence containing at least two main clauses and at least one subordinate clause.
A group of spoken words, roughly equivalent to the sentence in written terms.
Includes an actor or agent; verb phrase includes a finite present or past tense verb
Omits an actor or agent or includes the agent as part of the prepositional phrase after the verb.