Michael Halliday Taxonomy
Instrumental - language used to fufil a need on the part of the speaker - directly concerned with obtaining food , drink and comfort
Regulartory - language used to influence the behaviour of others - intially an extension of this persuading , commanding and requesting other people to do things you want
Ineractional - language used to develop social relationships and ease the process of interaction - the phatic dimenstions of talk
Personal - language used to express the personal preferences and identiy of the speaker - sometimes refered to as the here i am function - announcing onself to the world
Representational - language used to exchange infomation - relaying or requesting infomation
Heuristic - Language used to learn and explore the enviroment - using language to learn - may be questions and answers
Imaginative - language used to explore the imagination - may also accomplany play as children create
David Crystal 1996
0-4 months Vegetative stage - cries, burps and burbles , makes lots of noises of pain , hunger and discomfort , to which parents need to respond
4-7 months Cooing - cooing and going gaga , most children add a new variety of sounds to their repoertoi , before 6 months old the cooing which may behin to resemble some of the first sounds of speech
6-12 months Babbling - this evolves into bablling - first extended repititions by children of some basic phonemic combinations eg bababa
9-12 months First Words - from out of these streams of sounds , eventually emarge a samll reertoire of utterneces that sound something like a word
12+ months Holophrastic - one word is used for a while phrase , however these single words may appear to serve a multitude of functions and to have more than one meaning
John Dore Infant Language Functions
Labelling : simply labelling or identify a person , object or experience
Repeating: echoing something a spoken by an adult speaker
Answering: giving a direct response to an utterence from another speaker
Requesting Action: demanding food , drink ,a toy , calling , attracting attention by shouting
Greeting: self evident
Protesting: objectitivity to requests
Practising : using and repreating language when no adult is present
Alan Cruttenden 1974
compared adults and children to see if they could predict football results from listening to the scores , finding that adults could succesfully predict winners by the intonation produced oin the frist team , but children were less accurate
children do not respond to intonation
demonstrated that understanding of patterns of intonation is still developing in the teens
12 - 18 months - holophratic stage - one word utterence
12-24 months - two word - two words combinded to create simple syntactical structures
24-36 months - telegraphic - three or more words joined in increaingly comp[lex and accurate orders
36+ months - post telgraphic - increasing awareness of grammaticalr ules and irregulatives eg instead of saying runned , using ran.
Katherine Nelson 1973
4 catagories for first words
Naming - 60%
Describing/ Modifying things
Personal / Social words - 8%
pronounciation is simplified
Deletion : children will often simplfiy pronunciation by deleting certain sounds.
dropping of final consonants , droppping of unstressed sylables , reduction of consonant clusters
Addition : children sometimes break up consonant clusters not be delting one of the consonants , but by adding vowels to seperate them.
eg blue - belu
Substitution : another form of simplification involves substituting harder sounds with easier ones
eg r becomes w , the become d,n or f , t becomes d and p become b
Reduplication : where a syllable in the word is repeated
eg wee-wee , night-night , boo-boo
Assimilation : this occurs when sounds in a word are made to sound more like neighbouring ones . eg dog become gog
Methatesis : this occurs when sounds in a word are swapped round . eg relevant comes revelant
The "fis" phenomenon : Berko and Brown
Berko and Brown found that children who had pairs of words that sounded the same could still point to the correct picture in a comprehension task
eg mouse/mouth cart/card jug/****
child repeastdnly refers to plastic fish as fis
adult this is your fis?
child : no , my fis
adult: your fis?
child: no , my fis
adult: that is your fish
child: yes , my fis.
comprehension develops more quickly than the ability to repoduce the language
Whole Object Assumption
children make use of when confonted with new things that they name
for children a new word usually refers to a whole object, not part of it or a quality the object possesses.
holophrastic stage - one word used for whole phrase command
children tend to use nouns as their main word class early on ( katherine nelson)
most concrete nounds fit into 4 categroies that spekle noted:
chidlren like objects that are clearly defined in shape,that dont disappear, which are solid and which dont have a life of their own ( unless theyre animate - aninmals or people)
prevents children from underextending most new words.
if they are told that the new thing they have seen is a dog , thery dont assume that only that dog is a dog and every other dog isnt.
basic level assumption
prevents the child from over extending meanings too far.
so once a child has recognised what dog refers to , they seem to understand that it also refers to things with similar properties
mutual exclusivity assumption
the belief that an object cannot be two things at once
eg. child needs to understand that a dog is a kind of animal a BMW is a car and part of the wider classs of veichle.
as children get older they start to understand the hiererchial nature of naming categories
children often create new words by applying the rules they hear in use around them.
when we add endings (bound morphemes) to words to change their function we call it derivation.
conversion: when we change the word class of the world but leave it in its orginal form
eg to butter the bread - pass me the butter
children often overuse these conversions
well known experiment - Wug Test - Jean Berko 1950
76% of 4-5yr olds got the correct -s ending
97% of 5-7 year olds did.
children tend to overgeneralise this rule and end up creating incorrect forms such as mouses , childs , sheeps and mans
U - shaped development
the wugs test and wider reserch into how children use endings like -ed pasty tense and - er/est comparartives and superlatives revel that there is a U shapes development of correct use
it starts high , drops off as they start to apply the rule and then improves as they learn the excpetions to the rule
Roger Brown 1970 - research seems to suggest that this pattern is due to children using the correct form to begin with , overgeneralising a rule and then learn the exceptions to the rule
Gary Marcus 1992
researched past tense endings - noted how few errors children made ( roughly 10% of past tense forms were incorrect)
he proposed a model which suggested that children have a choice when faced with past tense verbs : they can add - ed opr retrive a special form.
it explains why sometimes they say runned or seed but also why they might do both and say founded or ranned
one is linked to a rule system: the other to memory .
belives that learning takes place through innate brain mechanisms , pre programmed with the ability to acquire grammatical structures.
Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
human languages , share many similarities , which he describes as universal grammar
Universal Grammar: the explanation that all world languages share the principles of grammer despite surface differences in lexis and phonology ,sometimes called linguistic universals
types of early phonological mistake
children master language by making mistakes until they fully aquire the skills
this trial and error approach is taken by some linguistsics as evidence that learning is taking place
study of first words found that children base overextensions on
the physical qualities of objects
features such as taste , sound ,movement, shape , size and texture
Leslie Rescorla - types of overextension
categorical overextension - the name for one member of a category is extended to all members of the category eg apple used for all round fruits - 60%
analogical overextension - a word for one object is extended to one in a different category ; usually on the basis that it has some physical or functional connection eg ball used for a round fruit - 15%
mismatch statements - oneword sentences that appear quite abstract , child makes a statement about one object in relation to another eg saying duck when looking at an empty pond - 25%
connects childrens lexical and semantic development - stages of childrens linguistic development
labelling - linking words to the objects to which they refer understanding that things can be labelled
packaging - exploring the labels and to what they can apply .Over/ under extension occurs in order to eventually understand the range of a words meaning
network building - making connections between words , understanding similarities and opposites in meanings