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Language Basics

NOUNS- NAMING WORDS

TYPES OF NOUN

  • PROPER- USUALLY BEGIN WITH CAPITAL LETTER. REFER TO SPECIFIC PEOPLE AND PLACES, EG: Paris, Jim, Pluto
  • COMMON- REFER TO TYPES OF PEOPLE, FEELINGS, PLACES ETC., EG: city, man, planet, happy. MOST NOUNS ARE COMMON, AND CAN BE SUBDIVIDED INTO:
  • CONCRETE NOUNS- THINGS THAT EXIST PHYSICALLY, THAT WE CAN SEE AND FEEL, EG: computer, hand, cat, house
  • ABSTRACT NOUNS- THINGS THAT DO NOT EXIST PHYSICALLY, LIKE FEELINGS, IDEAS, QUALITIES ETC., EG: friendship, sadness, democracy
  • COLLECTIVE NOUNS- GROUPS OF PEOPLE, ANIMALS OR OBJECTS, EG: team, family, flock.

NUMBER AND POSESSION- NOUNS CAN BE SINGULAR ORPLURAL. MOSTPLURAL NOUNSEND IN -S (bags, dogs etc.) BUT SOME END DIFFERENTLY (sheep, teeth etc.)

POSESSIVE NOUNS- NOUNS HAVE A POSSESIVE ENDING IF AN APOSTROPHE, OR APOSTROPHE S IS ADDED TO IT TO SHOW THAT SOMETHING BELONGS TO THE NOUN. AN APOSTROPHE IS ADDED TO PLURAL WORDS THAT ALREADY END IN S (the babies' toys), APART FROM THAT AN APOSTROPHE S IS ADDED (Tom's hat, girl's make-up etc.)

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Adjectives

ADJECTIVES- DESCRIBING WORDS, USED TO DESCRIBE NOUNS EG: a BIG wave, a NICE colour, a BORING person. NORMALLY APPEAR BEFORE NOUN BUT CAN BE USED AFTER, EG. the waves were BIG, the colour was NICE.

COMPARITIVES- COMPARING (a taller building, a fatter man etc.) GENERALLY, ADDING -ER TO THE END OF THE ADJECTIVE OR PLACING MORE IN FRONT OF THE ADJECTIVE MAKES A COMPARITIVE.

SUPERLATIVE- WORDS SUCH AS TALLEST, FATTEST ETC. ARE SUPERLATIVES. THEY DESCRIBE SOMETHING AS THE BEST IT CAN BE, EG. BIGGEST INSTEAD OF BIGGER. THEY ARE FORMED BY ADDING -EST, OR PUTTING MOST IN FRONT OF THE ADJECTIVE.

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