English Language

Terminology for English Language, Child Language Acquisition and Language Change

HideShow resource information

Phonological movements of the mouth (phonemes)

BILABIAL - both lips together  ( P, B, M, W)

LABIO-DENTAL - upper teeth touch lower lip  ( F, V )

DENTAL - tongue between teeth  ( TH )

ALVEOLAR - tongue on alveolar ridge  ( T, D, S, Z, N, L, R )

PALATO-ALVEOLAR - tongue between alveolar ridge and palate ( CH, J, SH, GE)

PALATAL - tongue on palate  ( Y )

VELAR - tongue on velum  ( K, G, NG )

GLOTTAL - using the glottis  ( H )

 

1 of 11

Phoneme types

PLOSIVE - a total blockage and quick release of air (explosion) ( P, B, T, D, K, G)

FRICATIVE - restricted release of air (like friction) ( F, V, TH, S, Z, SH, GE, H)

AFFRICATIVE - air totally blocked then released slowly ( CH, JE )

NASAL - air released through the nose  ( M, N, NG )

LATERAL - air released through the sides of the mouth ( L )

APPROXIMANT - a near but not total blockage of air  ( W, R, J )

2 of 11

Phonological Development

DELETION:

  • Consonant deletion ( that  - tha )
  • Cluster reduction  (Black - Bak )
  • Truncation - dropping syllables  (Balloon - Bun )
  • Dropping unstressed syllables  ( Banana - Nana )

SUBSTITUTION

  • Voicing and Devoicing  ( Cartoons - Cardoons )
  • Nasalisation and Denasalisation  ( Big - Mig  or  Man - Ban )

ASSIMILATION

  • Consonant Harmony  ( In there - Innere )
  • Reduplication  ( Picnic - Nicnic )

METATHESIS - changing order of phonemes  ( Desk - Deks )

 

3 of 11

Phonological Development

EPENTHESIS - adding phonemes to avoid consonant clusters  ( Blue - Balu )

FUSION - fusing phonemes together to make one sound ( Can't - Ca )

ADDITION - adding extra vowel to create consonant - vowel - consonant -vowel pattern  ( Dog - Doggy )

MORPHEME - the smallest meaningful unit of a word

4 of 11

Forms of experimentation and virtuous errors

  • OVEREXTENSION - a word given a wider sense of meaning by the child, may share characteristics with original meaning ( Ball applying to anything round )  

    • Catergorical, Analogical, Mismatch

  • UNDEREXTENSION - a word restricted to a single meaning by the child  ( White applying to only snow )

  • HYPERNYM - A vague word with broad meaning acting as a catergory for other words  ( Vehicle for example )

  • HYPONYM - A word with meaning associated with another word  ( Scarlet is a hyponym of red which is a hyponym of colour )

5 of 11

Jane Atkinson - stages of child linguistic develop

  • LABELLING - Linking words to the objects they refer, understanding that things can be labelled
  • PACKAGING - Exploring labels and what they can apply to - over/underextension can be used to understand the range of a word's meaning
  • NETWORK-BUILDING - Making connections between words, understanding similarities and opposites in meaning, understanding of semantic and pragmatic meaning  
6 of 11

Stages of Development

Two Word Stage, Roger Brown:

  • Agent  + Action, Daddy kick
  • Agent  + Affected, Me ball 
  • Entity  + Attribute, Kitty big 
  • Action  + Affected, Throw stick 
  • Action  + Location, Sit chair
  • Entity  + Location, Spoon table
  • Possessor  + Possession, Daddy coat
  • Nomination, That cake
  • Recurrence, More ball
  • Negation, No ball
7 of 11

Stages of Development

Telegraphic Stage

  • more explicit meaning and combinations of three or more words
  • Children tend to miss out functional words: determiners, prepositions, conjunctions
  • Grammar: syntax and morphology
    • order words into clauses and phrases
    • make different types of sentences for different functions that don't require different word orders (so not interrogatives or imperatives)
    • Add inflections to create tense, distinctions, possession and plurals
    • Experimenting with affixation to convert function and class
  • Verb inflections and auxillary verbs are omitted
  • Become more "correct" as child moves into the post-telegraphic stage
8 of 11

Child Directed Speech

Features of Child Directed Speech

  • Shorter utterances
  • repitition
  • simple interroagtives,
  • compliments,
  • lots of games and play for understanding of turn taking and pragmatics,
  • fewer verbs or modifiers
  • EXPANSION - develpoment of a child's utterance into a longer and more meaningful form
  • RECAST- commenting on, extending and rephrasing a child's utterance
  • BABY TALK - imitating elements of child speech ( reduplication, substitution etc. )
9 of 11

Functions of Speech

Halliday's functions of speech

  • INSTRUMENTAL - fulfil a need
  • REGULATORY - influence the behaviour of others
  • INTERACTIONAL - develop and maintain social relationship
  • PERSONAL - convey individual opinions, ideas and identity
  • REPRESENTATIONAL - convey facts and information
  • IMAGINITIVE - create an imaginary world, may be predominantly in play
  • HEURISTIC - learn about environment
10 of 11

Language Theories

  • NATIVISTS ( Noam Chomsky, Eric Lenneburg ) - Humans have an inbuilt capacity to acquire language
  • BEHAVIOURISTS ( B. F. Skinner ) - Language is acquired through imitation and reinforcement
  • SOCIAL INTERACTIONISTS ( Jerome Bruner, Lev Vygotsky ) - child language is developed through interaction with adults and More Knowledgable Other
  • COGNITIVE (Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget ) - language acquisition is part of a wider development of understanding
11 of 11

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar English Language resources:

See all English Language resources »See all resources »