Text one: 'The Butchers Shop'
GENRE: Poem / AUDIENCE: Adults, those with similiar experiences/ PURPOSE: To entertain.
Attitudes and ideas
- To show the contrast between the image of a butchers' shop and the idealised image of a children's book.
Grammar: Enjambement (breaks of rhythm) used to present joyous, happy tones.
Lexis: Simple lexis 'fat, wooly' to reflect that of a childrens book; adheres with purpose.
Semantics: Imagery of butchery/meat; contrasting tones, compares torys to pigs- could possibly suggest political themes/ rhetorical question 'what does the sheep say now?' is quite ironic/follows pattern of story book.
Text two: 'Eating Out'
GENRE: Poem / AUDIENCE: Adults / PURPOSE: To entertain
ATTITUDES + IDEAS: Learning manners, changing relationships, exploring relationships, building experiences
SEMANTICS: Semantic fields of control; contradicts with idea of adventure (Line 1); Metonym 'later' suggest ideas of change/discomfort (line 5); Sad imagery (Line 12)
PHONOLOGY: Assonance (line 13) conveys grief; enjambement shows changes in situation
GRAPHOLOGY: Italics (line 15) show cliche
GRAMMAR: Clause in sentence (line 11) snaps between two situations; Use of clauses (commas, etc) reflect changes in time
LEXIS: Technical vocab suggests ideas of wealth.
Text Three: 'The Sweet Menu'
GENRE: Poem / AUDIENCE: Adults / PURPOSE: To entertain
ATTITUDES + IDEAS: Poem explores the social ideas/stereotypes of eating
DISCOURSE: Free-verse- thought of the speaker, gives poem a more personal feel; Stanzas emphasize want for company; Passive construction (line 1) shows how the speaker is an observer.
GRAMMAR: Simple sentence (last line) stands alone - links with the theme of loneliness; Simple verbs (line 17) reflect mundane experiences; Dynamic verbs (line 18) shows how things are happening around him/how is a passive observer; Long, unbroken sentences (line 10) shows activity/contrasts with idea of quietness; Simple sentence (line 8) echoes loneliness.
SEMANTICS: Repetition of 'chair' emphasizes loneliness; Symbolism of 'lily' relates to idea of death/new life; Collocation (line 1) implies social expectations; Voice is lonely, world is happening around him.
LEXIS: Monosyllabic lexis reflects mundane experiences.
PHONOLOGY: Enjambement shows emphasis between settings.
Text 11: 'Vegetarian Society' webpage
GENRE: Webpage article / AUDIENCE: Vegetarians, young adults/those aspiring to become vegetarians / PURPOSE: Inform, Persuade, Advise.
ATTITUDES + IDEAS: To encourage people to become vegetarian. Emphasizes health benefits.
DISCOURSE: Clearly presentation; ease of understanding for reader. Builds upon instruction through each step.
GRAMMAR: Declarative and imperative dominate
GRAPHOLOGY: Bold titles for emphasis; pictures act as role models/persuasion; green colour scheme reflects 'healthy' lifestyle
LEXIS: Technical lexis relates to topic; keeps it well researched
Text 12: 'Pizza Restaurant Review'
GENRE: Review, Magazine article / AUDIENCE: Those interested in food / PURPOSE: To advise, persuade, inform
DISCOURSE: Bold titles outline paragraph/topics; pictures connotate with each review (informative to reader); consistent format assists reader; desc/adj/extreme criticism structure gives an accumulative effect.
LEXIS: Spoken style remains familiar to reader yet remains professional (niggles); technical vocab shows expertise/knowledge
GRAMMAR: Opposite adjectives (rustic/urban chic) shows comparison; gives sense of imagery to reader; clauses break down info into more attainable info
GRAPHOLOGY: Pictures juxtapose text; adds to info
Text 13: 'Matthew Norman Review'
GENRE: Newspaper article / AUDIENCE: Adults/Those interested in dining / PURPOSE: To inform, describe, explain
ATTITUDES AND IDEAS: Author is writing to persuade and inform readers about a dining experience- perhaps to avoid them going there themselves.
DISCOURSE: Bathos shows extreme changes in mood; uses similies to reflect feelings of experience; text is chronological, follows a story which is built throughout the article.
LEXIS: Variety of lexis changes from sophisticated to colloquial
GRAMMAR: Anecdotes detail experience.
GRAPHOLOGY: Colours could reflect negative experience; rating shown in bold sets tone; clear/bold writing intrigues reader.
Text 14: 'The modern bar and restaurant food menu'
G: Non-fiction menu / A: Mature adults with a strong background for food / P: To inform, advise, persuade
Attitudes and Ideas: Demonstrates their culinary expertise and HQ food but presents it in a laidback way to appeal to the audience/public.
Discourse: Bold titles, give the menu a definitive structure. Appeals to the audience by use of personal pronouns (you)
Grammar: Modal verbs; gives reader choice.
Text 15: 'Health and Safety Guidelines'
G: Non- fiction, goverment checklist / A: Those in the food industry / P: To inform
Discourse: Parenthesis is a common feature to enable the addition of more information; Rules are numbered for ease of clarity; Consistent structure/layout
Grammar: Modal verbs (shall) incur a direct consquence + show that court/enforcers have more flexibility; Determiners identify extra info about what is being implied
Lexis: Legal lexis sets a serious tone- meaning has to be precise.
Text 16: 'Mexican Scrambled Eggs'
G: Recipe / A: Adults, those interested in cooking / P: To explain, inform
DISCOURSE/GRAPHOLOGY: Juxtaposing picture makes recipe look easy/warmer/more desirable' warm colours connotate with mexican recipe; clear, bold text for ease of comprehension; bold text for ingredients
LEXIS: Colloquial lexis makes it approachable to reader; builds upon a friendly relationship between author and reader
GRAMMAR: Simple/compound sentences adds simplicity; imperatives guide the reader; Complex sentences build upon instruction (gives more detail); Adverbs add more precision; modal verb gives confidence
PHONOLOGY: Sibilance reflects sound of cooking/action- more exciting/interesting
Text 20: 'The importance of being earnest'
G: Prose/Play / A: Adults, those interested in literature / P: To entertain
A+I: Food is used as a weapon to attack Gwendolen/each others' lives in society; Author is trying to emphasize the ridiculousness that arised in Victorian society.
DISCOURSE: Dramatic irony- both characters feel that they are in love with the same man but infact are different (adds drama/builds upon plot); Set out like a transcript- documents process of speech and develops plot.
Text 25: 'Craig Girl'
G: Advert / A: Women in the 1920's / P: To persuade
DISCOURSE: Structure of a newspaper- misleading; written as a fast-paced story- gives excitement and acts as persuasive towards the reader.
LEXIS: Tortology builds upon idea of health (vigorous, healthy); specialised and repeated vocab- shows expertise.
GRAMMAR: Polite imperatives try to coerce the reader; statements make persuasion more defined; personal pronoun engage reader; elliptical interrogative sentence copies spoken style/makes it more relateable; masculine verbs put across the idea that women are successful
GRAPHOLOGY: Picture enforces idea of women being successful/energetic/ empowering; clear, bold font gives traditional appeal; coupon at bottom is helpful and persuasive
Text 28: 'Oliver Twist' (Grammar)
G: Story/Prose / A: Children/Adults / P: To entertain
A+I: Food is precious as it is extremely limited; desperation follows severe hunger.
- Parenthesis: ‘Which never took very long, the spoons being nearly as large as the bowls’ > Adds extra information into the sheer hunger of the boys and emphasises how little they are fed.
- Syntactic Parallelism: ‘Child as he was, he was desperate with hunger, and reckless with misery’ > Enhances the desperation, ‘reckless’ plays around with collocations.
- Complex/compound sentences:
· ‘A council was held; lots were cast who should walk up to the master after supper that evening, and ask for more; and it fell to Oliver Twist’ > Building up tension to the future events, adds suspense.
· ‘The room at which the boys were fed, was a large stone hall, with a copper at one end...’> Summarises the atmosphere and surroundings; gives an insight to the reader as to what the communal feeding hall looks like (Emptiness, cold, bare).
· ‘ The evening arrived; the boys took their places.’ > Shows regimented structure of mealtimes; routine.
· ‘The board were sitting in solemn conclave, when Mr Bumble rushed into the room in great excitement, and, addressing the gentlemen in the in the high chair’ > Complex/ compound sentence structure mirror the anticipation of the exciting news Mr Bumble has yet to express. Shows outrageousness of Mr Bumble interrupting the serious discussion.
Text 28: 'Oliver Twist' (Semantics)
- Metonym: Copper
· · ‘Clung for support to the copper’ > Copper is symbolic of the dining hall- staple for the little food received by the boys, as it is the only thing that provides them with some comfort.
- Hyperboly: ‘ unless he had another basin of gruel per diem, he was afraid at night that he may some night happen to eat the boy who slept next to him’ > Typical of Dickens, animalistic references emphasises the extreme measures of starvation could lead to.
- Irony: ‘ Of this festive composition’ > Highlights how even the littlest extra amount of food is celebrated like a festive occasion, due to the sheer tiny amounts they are given; shows bleakness in the atmosphere.
- Personification: ‘The bowls never wanted washing. The boys polished them with their spoons until they shone again’ > Indicates intense hunger of the boys- nothing is wasted.
· ‘Wild, hungry eye’ > Animalistic; starvation shows how desperate hunger has made them.
- Metaphor: ‘ as if they could have devoured the very bricks of which it was composed’ > Shows extreme hunger- they were so hungry that they could have devoured the actual structure.
‘ Paralysed with wonder’ > So shocked at what has happened, as it has never happened before.
- Semantic Fields- Desperation and hunger:
· ‘ Devoured’
· ‘Suffered the tortures of slow starvation’
· ‘Voracious and wild with hunger’ > Summarises the overall atmosphere of meal-times in the workhouse for the boys,
- War/ Battle preparations:
‘ Stationed himself at the copper, his pauper assistants ranged himself behind him’ + ‘He rose from the table, advancing to the master, basin and spoon in hand’ >Reflects Oliver’s preparation into getting the courage to ask for more food; structure of sentences builds up suspense (ties in with grammar also). Foreshadows what Oliver is about to do.
‘Aimed a blow at Oliver’s head with the ladle’ > Attack is precise; somewhat related to war tactics.
Oxymoron: ‘ Fat, healthy man’ > Fat is seen as healthy back in Victorian times, contrasts to the unhealthy weight of the boys in the workhouses; emphasises that back in this period of time, there was a great divide between rich and poor; the poor were starving and the rich were fat and well fed.
Text 28: 'Oliver Twist' (Lexis)
Assiduously: constant; unremitting: assiduous reading/constant in application or effort; working diligently at a task; persevering; industrious; attentive.
Voracious: Wanting or devouring great quantities of food: "he had a voracious appetite"/Having a very eager approach to an activity.
Temerity: Excessive confidence or boldness.
Countenance: A person's face or facial expression.
Solemn: Formal and dignified.
Not cheerful or smiling; serious.
Conclave: A secret or confidential meeting.
Text 28: 'Oliver Twist' (Discourse)
- Parallel structure of speech: ‘I know that boy will be hung’ said the gentleman, ‘I know that boy will be hung’ > Adds suspense to the end of the section; melodramatic as although in reality Oliver’s actions are not that dramatic, the fact that he has rebelled is seen as somewhat extreme to the authoritative figure- and will lead to serious consequences in later life for him.
- Formal speech: ‘ Compose yourself, Bumble, and answer me distinctly’ > Shows his cold approach and lack of empathy.