Colloquialisms - Informal terms used on a regular basis, slang.
Hedges - Shows uncertainty in language, e.g. probably.
Tag Questions - A sentence in spoken language with an question attached to the end, e.g. "do you want to come out later? About nineish?"
Complimentary Antonyms - Words that are the opposite of each other in an either/or fashion, e.g. hot/cold, male/female.
Convergence - Where you change the way you use language in order to suit another person, e.g. a scientist would not use scientific lexis around someone who wouldn't understand what they mean.
Rhetorical Questions - Questions asked for effect that do not expect an answer.
Hyperbole - Idea exaggeration, often used to persuade or evoke emotion.
Anecdotes - Brief stories (often about the writer), used to illustrate or reinforce the writer's argument.
Irony - When words are used rather sarcastically to say the opposite of what is really meant.
Imperative - A sentence that instructs, e.g. "answer the phone".
Interrogative - A sentence that asks a question (interrogate), e.g. "are you ok?"
Declarative - A sentence that makes a statement (declares), e.g. "I don't like pie".
Synonym - A word of a similar meaning to another, e.g. target means goal.
Phonology - The way words sound in a text, what effect does this have on the reader?
Graphology - The way a text looks, what effect does it have on the reader?
Filler - A non-fluency feature, in speech it is used to give the speaker time to think, e.g. "um" or "like".
Idiolect - The unique way an individual uses language.
Topic Shift - Where a speaker changes the topic of conversation.
Accommodation Theory - This suggests we change the way we use language to suit the person we are addressing, (similar to convergence).
Anaphoric Reference - A word or phrase that refers back to a previous part of the text.
Amelioration - This is where the meaning of a word is changed in order to make it more positive.