Revision Cards for AS English Language

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Definitions 1

Colloquialisms - Informal terms used on a regular basis, slang.

Hedges - Shows uncertainty in language, e.g. probably.

Tag Questions - A sentence in spoken language with an question attached to the end, e.g. "do you want to come out later? About nineish?"

Complimentary Antonyms - Words that are the opposite of each other in an either/or fashion, e.g. hot/cold, male/female.

Convergence - Where you change the way you use language in order to suit another person, e.g. a scientist would not use scientific lexis around someone who wouldn't understand what they mean.

Rhetorical Questions - Questions asked for effect that do not expect an answer.

Hyperbole - Idea exaggeration, often used to persuade or evoke emotion.

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Definitions 2

Anecdotes - Brief stories (often about the writer), used to illustrate or reinforce the writer's argument.

Irony - When words are used rather sarcastically to say the opposite of what is really meant.

Imperative - A sentence that instructs, e.g. "answer the phone".

Interrogative - A sentence that asks a question (interrogate), e.g. "are you ok?"

Declarative - A sentence that makes a statement (declares), e.g. "I don't like pie".

Synonym - A word of a similar meaning to another, e.g. target means goal.

Phonology - The way words sound in a text, what effect does this have on the reader?

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Definitions 3

Graphology - The way a text looks, what effect does it have on the reader?

Filler - A non-fluency feature, in speech it is used to give the speaker time to think, e.g. "um" or "like".

Idiolect - The unique way an individual uses language.

Topic Shift - Where a speaker changes the topic of conversation.

Accommodation Theory - This suggests we change the way we use language to suit the person we are addressing, (similar to convergence).

Anaphoric Reference - A word or phrase that refers back to a previous part of the text.

Amelioration - This is where the meaning of a word is changed in order to make it more positive.

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