Background & Treaty of London
- In France Louis XII died
- His successor Francis I sought to renew the conflict with Spain
- Henry’s sister Margaret was stripped of the Scottish regency after marrying the Earl of Angus and fled to England
Treaty of London
- The Treaty of London was signed in October 1518 between England, France, Portugal, Spain, Denmark, Hungary, the Swiss Republic and various German states
- It was a non-agression pact
- An example of collective security
- Seemed to place England at the centre of European affairs
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- October 1518 Henry sold Tournai back to France for 12,000 livres
- Charles V succeeded as HRE in 1519, as ruler of both Spain and the Netherlands, his terriroties encircled France
- In response to Luther’s 95 Theses, Henry wrote the Defence of the Seven Sacraments, asserting the power of the Roman Catholic faith. In gratitude the Pope gave him the title Defender of the Faith.
- Henry met Francis I at the Field of the Cloth of Gold, near Calais, in June 1520
- Charles tried to drive Henry away from friendship with France, but was preoccupied with problems within his own dominions.
- In 1521, Francis attacked Navarre and Luxembourg.
- On 25th August 1521, Henry signed a secret treaty with Charles V in which he promised to help Charles in his war with France at some future date.
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