Sustainable development = development that meets the needs of the present generation without affecting the future
Fossil fuels = oil, gas and coal formed by plant and animal remains
Primary energy = energy sources in raw form such as oil, gas or running water
Secondary energy = manufactured sources of power such as electricity
Geopolitics = the study of the relationship between a country and the rest of the world
Transnational corporations = large companies that operate in more than one country
Greenhouse effect = the way that the atmosphere absorbs long wave radiation from the earth and is warmed
Non renewable resources = finite resources, oil gas and coal
Renewable resources = natural rate of production, wave, tidal, solar, geothermal
Nuclear fission = splitting of the heavy elements in to a lighter elements, reaction set of by a random capture of a neuron in a nuclear power station
Acid rain = sulphur dioxide in the atmosphere is a pollutant that mixes with precipitation making the rain acidic which causes damage to the plants and animals
Biomass energy = living plants and decaying vegetables
Solar power = energy from the sun as incoming radiation, some energy is lossed when it passes through the atmosphere
Wind energy = energy generated by wind turbines, pollutant free and doesn’t contribute to global warming
Tidal energy = renewable source that uses the movement of the tides to create power
Appropriate technology = technical expertise and equipment used to the economical and technical levels of development
Energy conservation = variety of methods by which the use of all types of energy is reduced.
Non Renewable Energy Sources
Oil, 50 years supply left, limited resource, contributes to global warming.
Gas, 120 years supply left, causes pollution, is unreliable, limited supply and contributes to global warming.
Coal, 200-400 years supply left, dirty pollutant, expensive, limited resource, contributes to global warming.
Nuclear, 5000 years supply left
Nuclear fission, splitting of the heavy elements into a lighter element, by the random capture of a stray neuron, caused green glow, waste, danger, cancer, and is cheap, energy produced by nuclear fission is used to heat a liquid to boiling and the steam that is generated is used to power a turbine that generates electricity.
Global Patterns of energy supply
Distributed unevenly which means that energy sources are distributed long distances away from the point of consumption
Oil Supply, reserves found in the Middle East, cutting the consumption would preserve the amount of oil left. The Middle East is the biggest oil produced which provides 1/3 of the worlds total.
Natural Gas supply, big and widely distributed. Russia holds 38% of the world’s total. Transported by pipeline, much cleaner fuel than oil. Russia and the USA are the biggest producers.
Coal Supply, available in 70 countries, use is falling in MEDC's but rising in LEDC's. In China and India Coal is cheap to mine by dangerous to the environment. Coal Reserves in USA, Germany, Australia and Russia. If Oil and Gas supplies decline, then Coal will be the primary fossil fuel.
Consumption and Trade
Oil consumption and trade, Europe and Japan depend on the imports. USA is the worlds largest consumer. Oil is produced in the Middle East where it is cheap. LEDC's consume less oil. Rise is demand for oil in China. Transported by pipeline or tankers
Natural Gas consumption and trade, USA and Europe were the biggest consumers in 2005. Will be increase in demand over next 20 years. Easy to transport by tankers of pipeline. But pipeline is expensive, and environmental issues involved. Main exporting countries are Russia, Canada, and UK. Main importing countries are USA and Europe.
Coal consumption and trade, major source for generating electricity, coal generate 40% of worlds electricity. Produced in China, USA, Russia. It is cheap, and easy to mine. If Oil and Gas prices rise then the use of Coal will increase.
Geopoltics Of Energy
By 2025 China's economy will be bigger than the USA leading to high demand for non renewable energy.
As the reserves of non renewable fossil fuels disappear, the oil imports will grow in the USA, natural gas will become the world’s fastest growing source and the use of sustainable energy will increase.
The Middle East is very important to energy supplies for the rest of the worlds as it possess the most of the reserves for Oil and Gas. It is likely that in the future the Middle East will develop their Oil and Gas reserves so that they can maximise their value.
Transnational Corporations (TNC'S)
They operate in at least 2 countries and have their centres of production in one country and their headquarters abroad. As the organisation becomes more global is develops in its manufacturing areas.
They are involved in primary, secondary and tertiary industries. They control and cooperate within countries and develop them, therefore they can reduce the effects on the movement of goods.
Case study = BP. They are the largest UK owned TNC with 100,000 employees. Their brands include Castrol, Arco, Connect and reach consumers like Walmart.
- Exploration and production
Environmental Impacts of Energy Production
Renwewable sources are cleaner and less harmful to the environment. These are exploited on a smaller scale
Non renewable sources release harmful pollutions into the atmosphere when burnt.
Fuel Wood gathering, LEDC's use fuel wood for cooking, and accounts for over 90% of the households energy consumption. Overuse of the land for fuelwood gathering had led to less interception, reduced inflitration, faster runoff and greater soil eroison.
Nuclear Power Stations produce high levels of radioactive waste. Nuclear Waste has a long half life ( the measure of how long it takes to lose half its radioactivity)
Transport of the waste is a problem and railway containers have been designed
Sustainable Home = solar panels, biogas boiler, wind turbine, roof insulation, double glazing, solar lights, compost bin, door knocker, water collection
Sustainable Workplace = energy saving light bulbs, solar panels, recycled cups, sensered lighting, open blinds, turn lights off, use an earn instead of a kettle
Sustainable Transport = carrots which are encouragements, like park and ride systems, reduce fuel duty or car tax for smaller vehicles, have cars under 1000cc, electrical vehicles, LPQ vehicles, sticks with are coercions like pedestrianisation, congestion charging, parking charging.