Energy Transfer By Heating

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Heat energy can be transferred in 3 ways- Conduction, Convection & Radiation


  • Occurs in solids ( mainly)
  • Heat energy makes the particles on one side vibrate
  • This makes them pass on some of the enery to other particles, which vibrate and pass on some energy
  • Metals are good conductors because they have electrons which are free to move & pass on more of the energy
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  • Occurs in liquids and gases only
  • The energy is transferred to the water
  • The particles near the water heat up and start moving faster
  • This means that there is more distance between the particles- the water expands & becomes less dense
  • The heated particles rise above the cooler ones
  • The heated particles cool and fall back down, repeat
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Radiation // Evaporation & Condensation


  • All objects emit infrared radiation
  • The hotter an object, the more it radiates
  • Dark, matt surfaces absorb & emit more radiation 
  • Light, shiny surfaces reflect most of the radiation on them


  • Particles escape from the liquid
  • The particles gain energy and start moving around
  • The fastest particles can sometimes break free from the body
  • This decreases the average particle energy- the temperature of the liquid falls

Evaporation can be sped up if there is More energy, Less liquid or a Bigger surface area

Condensation can be sped up if there is a Bigger surface area or a Lower surface temperature

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Energy Efficiency In the House

Payback Time:

  • The time taken to recover the cost of the object from what you have saved on it:
  • To work out payback time: Initial cost / Annual saving


  • Tells us how much energy passes through different materials per second
  • The bigger the U-Value, the better conductor

Specific Heat Capacity:

  • The energy needed to increase the temperature of 1kg of something by 1 degree
  • Energy = mass x S.h.c. x Temp. change
  • E ( J ) = m ( kg ) x S.h.c ( j/ kg  C ) x (  C )
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