Energy Transfer

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Wind Power

Wind turns a turbine that turns a generator making electricity:

  • KE (wind to turbine)
  • Electrical energy (turbine to generator)

Lots of energy lost as heat due to friction.

Advantages:

  • No polluting gases
  • Renewable

Disavantages:

  • Wind turbines can only be used in windy locations
  • Non reliable as wind speed varies
  • Ruin the scenery
  • Makes lots of noise
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Hydroelectric Power

Large lake behind a dam

Water is released through turbines which are connected to generators, which generate large amounts of electricity

  • GPE (water in dam)
  • KE (water to turbine)
  • Electrical energy (turbine turns generator)

Advantages

  • Very reliable as there is a continuous flow of water and there is always a reservoir full of water
  • No polluting gases
  • Renewable

Disadvantages

  • Reservoirs flood land above the dam destroying habitats and preventing fish moving upstream
  • Dams can only be built in certain areas so not widely used
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Tidal Power

Large dam is built across a tidal estuary

This blocks the fast flow of the tide in and out of the estuary

As the tide moves in an out the water is forcedd through a turbine and generating electrcity 

  • GPE (water)
  • KE (water then turbine)
  • Electrical energy (turbine turns generator

Advantages

  • No polluting gases
  • Reliable (tide comes in twice a day)
  • Renewable

Disadvantages

  • Tide is only twice a day
  • Limited locations (river estuaries)
  • Destruction of tidal habitats
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Wave Power

Waves move in and out of a cylinder

They force the air in the cylinder through a turbine

The turbine turns a generator making electricity

  • KE (in water)
  • KE (water than turbine)

Electrical energy (turbine turns generator)

Advantages

  • No polluting gases
  • Renewable

Disavantages

  • Variable amount of waves
  • Limited locations
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Geothermal Power

Cool water is pumped through pipes beneath the earth's surface, where it heats up

Steam returns to surface and turns a turbine which is connected to a generator to make electricity

  • Thermal (hot rocks in Earth)
  • KE (steam then turbine)
  • Electrical energy (turbine turns generator)

Advantages:

  • No polluting gases
  • Renewable
  • Takes up little space

Disadvantages:

  • Can only be in volcanic areas
  • Polluting minerals can be brought up in the water
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Solar heating and cells

  • Solar heating
  • Waterpipes painted black so absorbs heat from the sun
  • Hot water is used for heating
  • Heat - heat
  • Solar Cells
  • Light - electricity 

Advantages:

  • No polluting gases
  • Good in remote areas
  • Free to run
  • Renewable

Disadavntages:

  • Low power output
  • Only works in daytime
  • Different amount of light during the day
  • Contains poisonous chemicals so careful disposal required
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Coal/Oil power (fossil fuels)

  • Chemical energy (coal/oil)
  • Thermal energy (fuel burnt)
  • Thermal energy (water turned to steam)
  • KE (high pressure then turbine)
  • Electrical energy (turbine turns generator)

Advantages:

  • Reliable
  • Easily distributed fuel

Disadvantages:

  • Acid rain gases (sulphur dioxide)
  • Greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide)
  • Non renewable
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Gas (fossil fuel)

  • Chemical energy (coal/oil/gas)
  • Thermal energy (fuel burnt)
  • KE (hot exhaust then turbine)
  • Electrical energy (turbine turns generator)

Advantages:

  • Quick start up time
  • Reliable

Disadvantages:

  • Greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide)
  • Non renewable
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Nuclear Power

  • Nuclear energy (uranium)
  • KE (radioactive decay particles)
  • Heat energy (particles heat coolant then steam)
  • KE (steam turns turbine)
  • Electrical energy (turbine turns generator)

Advantages:

  • No polluting gases
  • Reliable
  • Very efficient fuel

Disadvantages:

  • Expensive to decommission (nuclear waste)
  • Radiation leaks can cause radiation poisoning- death or cancer
  • Nuclear waste
  • Non renewable
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