Energy Security Case Studies

HideShow resource information

Nabucco Pipeline

  • 2009 - 2013
  • A pipeline created to reduced Europes energy dependence on Russian Gas.
  • Goes thorugh Austria, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey.
  • A cost of £8 billion.
  • Supplied by the Caspian Region.
  • Main supplier would be Iraq- 10 billion cubic metres of natural gas per year.
  • The pipe would have the capacity to transport 31 billion cubic metres a year.

Pros

  • Will reduce Russias energy dominance (currently supplies a third of all European gas).
  • Increases energy diversity, which increases energy security.

Cons

  • The pipe goes through geopolitically tense countries such as Syria, Iran and Iraq.
  • Expensive.
  • Could cause further tension between Russia and European states.
  • Will harm agriculture to build the pipe.
  • Doesn't decrease reliance on non-renewable resources.
1 of 12

Alaskan Tar Sands

  • Unconventional.
  • Located in North America, South of the Arctic Ocean.
  • Tar is a combination of sand, clay, water and bitumen, they are extracted by mining and then refined to get the oil.

Pros

  • Many undiscovered reserves.
  • Enormous growth potential.
  • In Alberta, jobs are created for Native Americans.
  • Keeps oil prices down.
  • Potential to produce 1.2 million barrels of oil a day.

Cons

  • Air purity decreases by 40%.
  • 2.9 million gallons of polluted water runs into streams- contains carcinogenic pollutants.
  • Destoys cabon sinks - 30-40% in Alaskan coastal aeas.
  •  50 squared miles now covered in toxic pools.
  • TNCs Vs Locals and Environmentalists
2 of 12

Yasini National Park

  • 1960's to present.
  • Located in Ecuador, South America.
  • Drilling will continue in 2016 by the company 'Petromazonas', they have permission to drill 100,000 hectares (10%) of the park.
  • 50% of Ecuadors export income comes from oil,
  • 45% of the population live in poverty.
  • 900 million barrels available.

Pros

  • Money generated through oil allows improvements in infrastructure such as schools, hospitals, and military.
  • Only 3% of the population live in the area, so not many people will be directly affected.

Cons

  • Ecuador is the most biodiverse place on the planet- may be affected e.g. 655 species of tree at risk.
  • Two main rivers may become polluted - The Cononaco and Napo.
  • Oil Spill in 1996 by Chevron- they were sued $1 billion. 
  • Indigenous 'Huaorani' people may be impacted and can contract diseases.
3 of 12

Hydrogen Cars

  • Store electricity as hydrogen then convert it into electricity in a fuel cell.
  • Generate electricity, water and heat, therefore no harmful emissions.
  • Tanks store 300 miles worth.

Pros

  • Can be powered on renewable electricity therefore have zero emissions.
  • Takes only 2-3 minutes to refuel.
  • 95% of hydrogen in 2014 was made from methane, so it actualy reduces greenhouse gases.

Cons

  • Only 11 refueling stations in the UK.
  • Hydrogen is expensive, costs around $13.50 per kg, which is about 62 miles.
  • The price of the cars is expensive, can be leased for $500 a month or purchased for around $60,000- double the price of an average car. 
4 of 12

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)

  • Debate began in 1977.
  • Should we drill in the Arctic for oil?
  • ANWR covers 19,000,000 acres of the North Alaskan coast.

Pros

  • Lower oil prices, leading to an economic boom.
  • Lessen the UKs dependence on foreign oil and makes us more energy secure.
  • Money spent on oil from the Middle East, Russia and Venezuala may be strengthening communists and terrorists.
  • Would help the economy in Alaska, as it would create thousands of jobs.

Cons

  • Doesn't help us move towards renewable energy resources.
  • Could disturb habitats and ecosystems, reducing biodiversity.
  • May take years for a significant amount of oil to be extracted.
  • Local residents and environmentalists Vs Government.
5 of 12

Trans Anatolian Pipeline (TANAP)

  • Aims to reduce Europes reliance on Russias gas supply.
  • Natural Gas will be transported by an 1805km long pipeline underground.
  • Funded by Turkey and Azerbaijan.
  • Construction will last 4 years, target is to complete by 2018.
  • Natural Gas comes from Georgia/Turkey and enters the TAP pipeline.

Pros

  • Decreases reliance on Russian gas.
  • Increases importance of Turkey and Azerbaijan as EU energy partners.

Cons

  • Not reducing reliance on non-renewable energy sources.
  • Could increase tensions with Russia.
  • Starts in a politically tense area - Turkey has had problems with terrorism.
6 of 12

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)

  • Technology captures up to 90% of the carbon dioxide emissions produced from the use of fossil fuels in industry.
  • Stores the Carbon Dioxide underground in depleted oil and gas fields or deep saline aquifers.
  • Scotland has 50% of the offshore storage capacity in Europe.

Pros

  • Can work within the existing system- everything can operate as usual.
  • Reduces amount of Carbon Dioxide in atmosphere.

Cons

  • Carbon Dioxide is stored underground and this may have unforeseen circumstances.
  • Expensive and money could be spent on renewable technologies that we know work.
  • Could be seen as a distraction, prolonging the switch to renewable energy sources.
7 of 12

Carrot and Stick

An approach which encourages initiatives for becoming greener (Carrot) such as investment opportunities or by offering a punishment (Stick) such as fines.

Kyoto Protocol

  • 1997
  • An international treaty amongst industrialised nations that sets limits on greenhouse gas emissions, if a country does not meet limits it is fined.
  • USA has not signed up- key figure.
  • Has led to the development of the 'carbon-trading' market - countries arent reducing emissions at all.

Green Taxes

  • Car Tax- depends on the emissions of the car, more emissions higher tax. Aims to discourage the purchase of high emission cars.
  • Congestion Charge- a charge incurred to drive into an area, to reduce traffic. 
  • Smart Meters- allows people to be aware of household energy consumption.
8 of 12

Geothermal, Iceland

  • Located on the Mid Atlantic Ridge, where the Eurasion plate meets the North American plate in the North Atlantic Ocean.
  • Generates 25% of Icelands electricity.
  • Used in 9/10 households.
  • Water is pumped underground and heated, the steam created turns a turbine which generates electricity.

Pros

  • Saves 80% more than fossil fuels.
  • Minmal pollution.
  • Infinite.
  • Has huge potential- 2TW worldwide.

Cons

  • Can displace habitats and put species at risk such as the Icelandic Lichen.
  • Potential to trigger earthquakes.
  • Location specific- has to be on a tectonic plate boundary.
  • Environmentalists and Local People Vs TNCs (e.g. Magma Energy)
9 of 12

Biofuels in Brazil

  • Tradition of sugar cane farming has led to the production of bioethanol.
  • Investment in Brazil biofuels rose in 1973 due to the fuel crisis.
  • Production increased from 0.6bnl in 1975 to 11bnl in 1990.
  • 47% of Brazils energy is renewable.
  • Brazil is the 2nd largest producer of biofuel (20bnl).

Pros

  • Created 1 million jobs.
  • Useful waste products- Vinasse is a good fertiliser.
  • Reduces reliance on fossil fuels.
  • Brazil is energy secure.

Cons

  • Eutrophication of Vinasse - can be corrosive.
  • Could lead to food insecurity as land is used to grow crops for fuel, or increase in food prices, which will affect the urban poor.
10 of 12

Wind Power in North Sea

  • Dogger Bank is the main site, located 102 miles off the North Coast of England.
  • Will power 2 million British homes.
  • Consists of 200 turbines.

Pros

  • Create 4750 jobs.
  • Will generate £1.2 billion in its lifetime.

Cons

  • 98% of Norwegian birds had plastic particles in their stomachs.
  • Conflicts over water territory between the UK and Denmark.
  • NIMBY issues.
11 of 12

Fracking in the USA

  • Extracted by drilling into rock then pump in at very high-pressure vast quantities of water mixed with sand and chemicals. This opens up tiny fissures in the rock, through which the trapped gas can then escape.
  • In 2000 shale gas provided only 1% of U.S. gas production, by 2010 it was over 20%.

Pros

  • ŸHelps to keep the OPEC countries from creating a monopoly on fuel prices.
  • Reduces reliance on other countries (Russia, Iraq and Qatar).
  • Shale gas is 17% cheaper than the cheapest renewable fuel.

Cons

  • Contamination of drinking water resources with chemicals.
  • Not reducing reliance on fossil fuels.
  • Increased seismic activity. 
  • Noise pollution - trucks and lorrys, drilling, etc.
  • 18 million litres of water needed to drill just one well.
12 of 12

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Energy sources and security resources »