Energy Security - Case Studies

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India - Access to Energy

  • Fast becoming one of the world's largest energy consumers
  • Only a small percentage of the population have access to clean, efficient energy systems
  • 70% of the population live in rural areas, where most gather solid fuels like wood and dung

    -> could benefit from the ROCKET STOVE (TECH FIX LINK) that utilises small diameter fuel to produce heat contained in a small area for cooking and heating. Reduces the amount of fuel used, so long distances travelled to collect fuel will become less frequent. It's also easy to build with local materials. 

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Kenya Micro-Hydro Power Project - Access to Energy

  • 96% of Kenyan's have no access to grid electricity
  • Rural: 1/3 of income is used on kerosene for lighting and diesel for milling grain.
  • Women spend hours collecting wood and dung for cooking
  • Mbuiru Village, Kenya - 200km North of Nairobi 
    - The Tungu-Kabri Micro-Hydro Power Project
    - Funded by the United Nations
    - Harnesses the energy of falling water to create electricity
    - Cheap, sustainable and small scale
    - Benefits around 1,000 people
    - Provides light, saves time and allows people to run small businesses
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UK Energy Mix

  • 200 million tonnes of oil equivalent in the UK consisted of gas, oil and coal (fossil fuels) in 1990
  • Fossil fuel use has slightly increased to 2005 (coal and oil use declined, gas rose)
  • By 2010, it decreased overall to 160 million tonnes of fossil fuels 
  • Renewables = 20 million tonnes in 1990
  • This has incresed, however fossil fuels are still the largest share of UK energy mix


  • Total energy use is falling
  • Trasnsport use is increasing - accounts for 2/5 units of energy used in the UK
  • Industry energy use has fallen to 2nd lowest (above 'other' sectors)
  • Energy use in homes has fluctuated but stayed at a very similar level
  • UK mix is still dominated by fossil fuels
  • Large shifts in renewable and coal output 
  • Nuclear = 19% of power mix in the UK           Gas = 30%           Coal= 30%
  • Renewables are much smaller percentages:
    Wind = 9.5%      Bioenergy = 6.8%      Solar=  1.2%     Hydro = 1.8%
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Trans-Alaska Pipeline System

  • 800 miles long
  • Prudhoe Bay to Valdez
  • Built 1974 - 1977 after the 1973 oil crisis which caused a sharp rise in oil price
  • Cost $8 billion to build
  • As of 2010, the pipeline has shipped 16 billion barrels of oil
  • Delivers 20% of US domestic oil production
  • Designed and engineered not to disrupt wildlife around it (such as bears and wolves) and especially not to disrupt Caribou migration, therefore some parts were rasied 10 foot above ground to let Caribou pass beneath (LINK TO BIODIVERISTY UNDER THREAT)
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European Union's Nabucco Pipeline Project - Energy

  • Sponsored by the EU
  • Would have carried gas from Turkey to Austria, through Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary
  • Instead, the Trans Anatolian Pipeline (TANAP) funded by Azerbaijan and Turkey, is due to come into operation in 2018
  • This route is 500km shorter than Nabucco
  • Although the TANAP pipeline will reduce Europe's dependance on Russian supplies of gas, its capacity of 10 billion cubic metres per year is not enough 
  • Only 1/3 of Nabucco's potential
  • Equates to 1% of Europes' total demand


  • In 11 years of planning, no country could be found to be an energy supplier
  • Iran, Turkmenistan, Egypt and Iraq all pulled out, and Azerbaijan finally rejected the idea
  • There was no unanimous agreement among the EU states to build the Nabucco pipeline until recently
  • Wasn't economically viable
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Canadian Oil Sands

  • Supplies more oil to the US than any other foreign source
  • Employs over 450,000 people
  • Alberta, Canada (North Eastern)
  • 8x Saudi Arabia
  • 1/3 size of Norway, slightly bigger than Greece


  • Habitat destruction
  • Ducks killed in oil leaks
  • National Geographic : "dark satanic hills"
  • Carcinogens from bitumen production and the surfacing of arsen and lead causes cancers and brain tumours in the local people
  • Lake pollution - fish deformed / mutilated with tumours; effects local food source
  • Air pollution
  • One of the most highly monitored programmes

Local people of Fort Chipewan, Minister of Environment (Canada), Scientists, University of Alberta

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BP in the UK and US

  • Employs 10,000+
  • Operates 40 offshore oil and gas fields
  • Owns 4 onshore terminals
  • Constructed a pipeline capable of transporting 50% of the oil and gas produced in the UK
  • 200,000 barrels of oil are extracted from the North Sea daily
  • 30% of BPs business takes place in the USA, where $55 billion has been invested since 2007
  • Main bases: Alaska and Gulf of Mexico
    Alaska: BP operates 13 oilfieds and 4 pipelines
    Operate under arctic conditions with extreme temperatures
    Mountainous terrain, fragile tundra ecosystem
    Much of the land = wilderness or National Park
    Pipelines built above frozen tundra so as not to melt the permafrost and also not to block paths of wildlife (LINK TO BIO UNDER THREAT)

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  • Multinational Corporation (MNC) that emerged from the break up of the Soviet Union
  • Russian company, formed in 1989
  • Largest extractor of natural gas in the world and 4th largest oil producer in Russia
  • Gazprom operates in: Algeria, Libya, Bolivia, Venezuela, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Iraq, Vietnam
  • Produces 17% of world production


  • Yamal Peninsual, NW Siberia
  • Located in the harsh Arctic environment with permafrost, a fragile ecosystem and in relative isolation
  • Far east
  • Arctic Shelf
  • Exports via pipeline and tanker
  • Gazprom aims to restore land damaged by earlier exploration
  • Barents Sea, Prirazlomnaya - planned to extract oil by the end of 2013
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The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge - ANWR

  • Protected area with oil reserves, nearby Prudhoe Bay oilfield is nearly exhausted
  • Capable of producing 876,000 barrels of oil a day (SOURCE: Department of Energy)
  • Even at this rate, drilling in ANWR would decrease US reliance on foreign oil by only 3%
  • Wanting to drill equivalent to size of LAX
    - ANWR drilling could keep America's economy growing
    - Create jobs and ensure businesses can expand
    - Scientists developed way to reach ANWRs oil with virtually no damage to local wildlife / land
    -"Irreversibly damage a protected national wildlife refuge"
    - Will not create sufficient oil supplies
    - No huge impact on US energy security
    - Provide jobs for locals and Americans
    - enable Alaska to further develop energy security
    - Will not affect them or caribou migrations
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