End of Cold War

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Detente

What? - Permanent easing of tension

Why? - Threat of nuclear war during the Cuban Missile Crisis frightened both sides

- USSR > Czechoslovakia, Brezhnev continuing 'Peaceful Coexistence' set up by Krushev, Eastern bloc

- USA > Vietnam, Civil RIghts Movement, unrest, cost

Successes - Hotline: Washington-Kremlin

- Test Ban Treaty 1963

- Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 1968

- Brezhnev help broker peace between USA and North Vietnam for Nixon

- Eventual ceasefire in Arab-Israeli War 1973

- Nixon visited Moscow July 1974- agreed to work together and scale down nuclear warfare

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Detente cont.

Limitations

- Brezhnev Doctrine- coined by 1968

- Six Day War- 1967: Israeli victory over Middle East drew Arab states closer to USSR as USA had provided arms to Israel

- USSR providing arms to North Vietnam

- Arab-Israeli War 1973: disagreements over how to deal with Egypt and Israel

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Salt I - May 1972

- 3 years of talks

- ABM: Agreement reached on Anti-Ballistic Missile systems- 2 systems each, one for capital city and other for main nuclear site

- Five year freeze on ICBMs and SLBM

- Code of conduct: USA pledged to 'do their utmost to avoid military confrontations' and 'exercise restraint

- Trade was to be encouraged

- Satellite checks on each other were permitted

- Strategic bombers not limited

- New weaponary may be developed

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Nixon visits Moscow- July 1974

- To limit and end the arms race

- To contribute to the elimination of international conflicts

- To improve trade links

- Led to Space link-up

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Helsinki Agreements- 1975

- Security: European borders and recognition of W. Germany

- Cooperation: trade, culture, technology, science

- Human Rights: respect of by all countries

- USA, USSR and 33 other countries

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Salt II- 1979

- Began in 1974 not signed until 1979

- Pres. Carter sent a letter to USSR dissident Sakharov supporting their stand against USSR authority- viewed as interference

- Claims made about Soviet violations of Helsinki Human Rights- embarrassment to Brezhnev

- Set equal limits for missile launchers & strategic bombers

- Dialogue channels remained open between incoming Carter and increasingly weak Soviet premier Brezhnev

- Never ratified due to Soviet troops in Cuba and US missiles in Europe

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Afghanistan

Background

- April 1978 Communist part PDPA led by Taraki overthrew the Afghan government

- First 18 months: communist and anti-Muslim reforms, changes to land and marriage laws, intellectuals and upper class imprisoned and murdered

- Taraki's deputy Amin overthrew in September 1979

- Rise of the Islamic fundamentalism: Mujahideen- Muslim opposition that declared Jihad

- Soviet fear of Muslim fundamentalism and Amin becoming dependant on Soviet support

Soviet Invasion

- 25/12/1979-1/1/1980: 50,000 Soviet troops sent to restore order

- 27/12/1979: Amin shot and replaced with Kamal

- Afghan soldiers turned to Mujahideen and Kamal had 85,000 Soviet troops

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US reactions to Afghanistan

- Carter Doctrine : military force in Persian Gulf if required

                         : US aid to Afghan bordering countries

- Delayed passing Salt II

- Trade bans with USSR

- Assistance to Mujahideen

- Moscow Olympics boycotted - 61 other countries

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Reagan and Foriegn Policy

- Beat Carter in 1980

- Tougher with USSR

- Raising US profile internationally

- Fighting Communism

- Defence budget 1981-87: trillion dollars

- NUTS- Nuclear Utilization Target Selection- the belief that a limitednuclear war could be won

- MAD- Mutually Assured Destruction- both sides accepted

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Worsening Relations

- Reagan knew US could approach negotiation talks from an economic superior position

- 1981- 'zero option'- removal of European missiles in exchange for Soviet dismantling missiles. Brezhnev rejected

- Rejected 'zero option' legitimised more European missiles for the US

- June 1982- House of Commons- Reagan: Soviet Union is an 'evil empire'

- Andropov- Reagan is a liar, fans the flames, compared to Hitler

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Star Wars

- START- Strategic Arms Reduction Talks continuing despite building up of arms

- US supported banned Polish workers' union

- Critised Polish government and Brezhnev- led to banning hi-tech trade with the Soviet Union

- Soviets walk out of START talks 1983

- Reagan announces SDI- Strategic Defence Initiative (Star Wars)

- Congress approved increased budget

- Andropov saw it as preparation for war

- Soviets now had to invest in military budgets that they couldn't afford- Reagan's plan?

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1980-1985

- Brezhnev died in 1982

- Andropov made trade agreement- US sold grain to Soviet Union- became significant for US

- Andropov died in 1984

- Chernerko- boycotted 1984 LA Olympics

- Warsaw Pact followed Soviet lead (except Yugoslavia and Romania) as did the other Middle Eastern countries. Still the biggest games - 140 countries including China

- NUTS seemed closer with placing on tactical missiles

- By end of 1984 Detente closer

- Chernenko died in 1985

- Gorbachev marks new beginnings

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Gorbachev

- Reforms: Perestroika, Glasnost and Uskoreine

- Arms Race ended

- Satellite States: Soviet influence ended

- Superpower: through peace and trade

- Public support: 'walkabouts'

- Oppositions: released from prison, banned books published (Glasnost), Stalin's actions revealed (Glasnost)

- Local government elections (Perestroika)

- Critisism (Glasnost and Perestroika)

- Free trade (Uskoreine)

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Ending of the Arms Race

- Gorbachev's policies allowed talks to reopen

- Geneva meeting in Nov/1985

- Reagan unwilling to give up Star Wars

- Agreed:speed up arms talks, active on Human Rights, work to abolish chemical weapons

- Reykjavik summit 1986- collapsed over Star Wars. Gorbachev spoke of his frustration

- INF- 1987- Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty- eliminated ground and cruise missiles, by 1991, 2692 weapons destroyed, inspections allowed

- Moscow 1988 signed

- Gorbymania

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