End of Henry VIII's Reign

Scotland

·         The outcome of the Battle of Solway Moss was that the Scots were heavily defeated and James V died

·         The Scottish positions seemed hopeless and one-week old Mary was left as heir

·         Henry did not mount a full invasion of Scotland because his main interest was an invasion of France so was looking primarily to diplomatic pressure

·         The Treaty of Greenwich, 1543 agreed that the children were all betrothed

·         Arran deserted the English cause and the Scottish parliament refused to ratify the treaty

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France

·         Henry formed an alliance with the emperor before the invasion

·         Early problems that faced the invasion included the fact that Henry gave little though to strategic objectives and that councillors try to persuade Henry not to invade

·         In 1545 Francis I sent troops to Scotland to reinforce a possible invasion of England from across the Scottish border; the English were defeated at the Battle of Ancrum Moor; a separate French force landed in the Isle of Wight; Henry’s flagship, the Mary Rose, sank in the Solent

·         Both sides made peace because neither could afford to continue the conflict

Was the action a success for Henry:

·         No, Henry paid a high price for his final pursuit of glory

·         Was unable to fund war from extraordinary revenue

·         Sold much of the crown lands

·         Borrowed large sums and debased coinage

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The Church in the 1540s

·         Acts of six Articles 1539 – Enforce Catholic beliefs about Eucharists

·         1540-7 – Protestants were mostly persecuted

·         Last wife – Catherine Parr was a protestant

·         Catherine Parr educated Edward and Elizabeth by Protestant scholars

·         Bible available in English

·         Reforms against worship of Saints and other superstitious practices had survived

·         Services were still in Latin

Seven sacraments remained

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