Elizabethan problems

Religion

Catholicism - Pope, decorations, coloured vestments, church can forgive sins, latin,  'old religion'

Protestantism - no pope, plain/simple, simple vestements, god forgive only, english, new religion'

Puritanism - no pope, bare, no vestements, god forgive only, english, 'strict protestants,

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religious settlement

- 1559

- marian bishops refused to vote for protestant worship Liz arrested 2

- didnt want to punish for beliefs/ have rebellions

- church service: book of common prayer, clergy had to use this, refusal punished 

- supreme head --> supreme govenor [ acts of supermacy and uniformity] 

- protestant country but looked Cath

- no pope

parliament passed it

took autumn 1558 to make it

- people accepted it + aim ws to unite country

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puritan challenge to RS

  • unneeded crucifix - but caths liked - liz gave in as bishops threatened to leave + no replacements
  • didnt like vestments, but caths did - liz didnt back down
  • book of adverts - say what preists should wear - 37 refused to go to an exhibition and lost jobs
  • pope 'rebel + dont go 2 church' , liz not bad punish as = martyrs= get sympathy
  • liz helped Fr prot rebels
  • but cath + prot = peace
  • liz accepted loss to calais so no angry Fr
  • angered King of Spain by supporting prot rebels
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Mary QoS

  •  strong claim to throne + married to french King
  • when hub died [1560] = bact 2 scot - prot land had more control
  • liz wouldnt say mary was heir as she was cath and would divide country
  • her mum was overthrown by scots who supported liz 
  • = treaty of edingburg signed = mary would give up claim to throne
  • remmaried 1565 to lord Darnley [ murdered 2yrs l8r by earl of bothwell
  • people thought mary was involved + prot scot lords forced her to abdicate
  • mary fled to england and asked liz for help to regain scot throne
  • no decision for mary's guilt so locked her up - kill = mad FR and SP but sent abroad = mad Scot
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Revolt of northern Earls

  • Earl o northumberland , westmorland [cath and important] and duke o northfolk [most senior nonle and prot. 1570s early
  • lost influence, wanted cath, MQoS could help, liz didnt name an heir/ marry + opposed RS
  • marry mary = liz heir and overthrow liz with mary 
  • liz tipped off + arrested DoN and mary moved further away
  • other 2 took over parts of north but liz crushed rebellion w/ troops.
  • spain did not help like said and EoW escaped but EoN executed
  • pope excommunicated liz and ordered caths to overthor her
  • new law 'treason to q liz' and prepared to give harsher treatment
  • Most caths stayed loyal but liz suspicious
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Babington Plot 1586

  • anthony B - page of Early of shrewsbury [ reason for marys custody] 
  • carried letters to mary in 1580s
  • to murder liz and make M queen + cath
  • walsingham spies to get evidence against mary
  • 6 steps to rid of prot = 1-4 = plan a succesfull invasion by foeign army. 5 = free mary 6=dispatch of usurper
  • spies in Ms house and intercepted sent letters through barrels 
  • Bab and 2 tried to flee but executed in 1586 sept = mary moved further
  • october = comissioners found mary guilty of plotting and said should be killed
  • strategic + spainto help but gov onto them and spies
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ridolfi plot 1571

  • roberto italian banker - sent meesages to duke of alva [netherlands], pope, and phil to invade england.
  • ridolfi met DoA to persuade him but he refused and told phil to invade after liz overthrown 
  • DoN servants betrayed him and he was arrested sept = had plan written out
  • could blab and DoA didnt think it would work but eng caths would help and spain = big army
  • DoN killed jun 1572 and Ridolfi went to rome and became a senator
  • span ambass expelled but relations didnt improve
  • didnt kill mary and not loyal = traitor
  • fear of cath attack and prots killed in france [foreignn attack]
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Throckmorton plot - 1583

  • francis t carried letters M-Fr and span ambass also in contact with mebers of cath nobility
  • with money from spain and french army free mary as queen and restore cath monarch and country
  • april 1583 - francis was surveillanced and gov arressted him - house was searched and papers found
  • evidence about cath noble involvement and harbours for foreign invasion
  • francis claimed it went no further as no money from phil
  • no evidence against mary except throckmortons statement after torture
  • span ambass expelled and francis expelled and killed - 1584 july
  • earls were arrested
  • intensified efforts to protect liz and prot
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Mary's execution

why:

  • war / spain and foreign involvment in plots ^ danger
  • liz under pressure form councillors + parliament to kill mary
  • cath mary attracted support from caths who opposed RS
  • strong claim to throne (married cousin )
  • plots ^ danger
  • evidence mary knew about plots
  • 1569-71 plots = liz in danger and 1573 - plan for foreign invasion to restore cath
  • 1584-85 assassination of william orange + outbreak of spain war - worried gov of cath threat
  • 1586 plots walsingham had evidence against mary 
  • 1587 trial + liz signed death warrant in july
  • mary executed
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