Elizabeth I - Regions

Ireland

Aims: Assert full control of Ireland and implement a policy of 'Englishness' including religion. 

Background: Ireland was mostly catholic with a different language and Laws (the Lord Deputy ruled on E's behalf); 1560 - Elizabeth became Supreme Governor of Irish Church but lacked enough control to impose protestantism; increasing unrest caused by English Nobility and Gentry investing in Irish land to 'get rich quick' - the poor relations and imposition of martial law led to growing resentment. 

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Ireland (II)

Key events and Rebellions: 

  • 1569-1573 & 1582 rebellions broke out against English Rule - in 1582 the Spanish attempted to exploit rebellion. Brutally Suppresssed. 
  • 1595-1603 major rebellion - O'Neill (Early of Tyrone) led an uprising made much more serious by the fact that the Spanish attempted to use it to attack England in the 2nd Armada 1596. Showed the danger of an Irish Rebellion to English security. 
  • 1598 - Tyrone in control of most of Ireland after winning the Battle of Yellow Ford 1598. 
  • 1599 -  E sent Earl of Essex to Ireland as Lord Lieutenant. Essex disobeyed Elizabeth by delaying attacks and negotiating a truce with Tyrone wihtout her permission before returning to court (12,000 troops lost due to dessertion/disease). 
  • 1601 - Tyrone starts to retreat after new Lord Lieutenant, Lord Mountjoy wins a victory in Dec 1601 despite 3,000 Spanish troops supporting Tyrone. 
  • 1603 - Tyrone signed a generous peace treaty with Mountjoy (6 days after E's death).
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Wales

Wales continued to integrate with England although language and cultural differences still existed. 

  • The Council of Wales and Marches worked effectively.
  • The Welsh language disappeared in official Government business but the Book of Common Prayer, the Bible and Sermons were in Welsh. 
  • Many Welsh Gentry appeared to prosper during Elizabeth's reign, but poverty was widespread. 
  • Large population of Welsh rebels in the 1601 Essex rebellion, implying discontent within Elizabethan times. 
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Northern England

  • The maintenance of law and order in the North remained with the Council of the North based in York. After the Northern Rebellion in Durham many rebels fled across the border to Scotland. 
  • The border became a key issue 1578-1585 when the Scottish Protestant Lords faced challenges to their leadership. The area was plagued by lawlessness, violence and cattle theft. 

How did Elizabeth respond?

  • Border Wardens were traditionally from Northern Noble families, but Elizabeth like HVIII appointed southerners as she was more confident in their loyalty. 
  • SOutherners struggled to govern effectively without their own land base in the region. Elizabeth appointed Sir James Froster. a lesser northern landowner in 1560 but he was corrupt and ineffective. 
  • After the murder of the Earl of Bedford's son in a border incident 1585, negotitations with James VI of Scotland were resolved by Elizabeth agreeing to pay him a pension of £4,000 and stronger hints about his succession to the English throne. 
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