Elizabeth I - Foreign affairs

  • Created by: KingLou99
  • Created on: 20-05-17 18:11

Elizabeth I - Foreign affairs

Marriage issues

  • Elizabeth = single lady -> when she died, possibility return of Catholicism -> believed marriage was royal prerogative + not areas for discussion = repeated tension during reign
  • Suitors -> Robert Dudley (Earl of Leicester = would have created many political risks (mysterious death of wife) -> Philip II of Spain = profound Catholic -> Archdukes Ferdinand + Charles = both Catholic -> Prince Erik of Sweden
  • Death of Amy Dudley -> found dead with broken neck at bottom of staircase = assumed been murdered on orders of husband = free to marry Elizabeth

Marriage, the succession and Parliament

  • 1st raised issue of marriage January 1559 = Elizabeth deflected -> October 1562 Elizabeth got smallpox = succession crisis -> if she died, could lead to civil war, foreign invasion, religious strife
  • Potential successors = Lady Catherine Grey (sister of Jane) + Mary, Queen of Scots
  • 1556 Parliament pressed Elizabeth to marry = furious, banished Earl of Leicester + Earl of Pembroke from Presence Chamber
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Elizabeth I - Foreign affairs

  • 1579 possible marriage to Duke of Anjou of France = suggested by Burghley + Sussex -> nothing happened

Final succession

  • Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots = James VI of Scotland had best claim -> James = Protestant + had 2 sons
  • Elizabeth's councillors wanted to remain in royal favour -> began wooing James before Elizabeths death 1603 -> Cecil ensured James' untroubled succession

Mary, Queen of Scots

  • Mary incurred wrath from Protestants + English lords because of marriage to Darnley -> marriage disaster = implicated in husband's murder -> married Darnley's presumed murderer, Earl of Bothwell = civil war -> Mary fled to England 1567
  • 1567-87 continuous problem for Elizabeth -> some Catholics saw her as rightful monarch -> worsened following excommunication of Elizabeth 1570 = tightening of treason law
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Elizabeth I - Foreign affairs

Catholic plot against Elizabeth

  • 1571 -> Ridolfi plot -> conspiracy Mary marry Duke of Norfolk + overthrow Elizabeth = execution of Norfolk
  • 1583 -> Throckmorton plot -> foreign landing in Sussex + overthrow Elizabeth -> foiled by Sir Francis Walsingham = creation of Bond of Association + worsened Anglo-Spanish relations + tightened Mary's captivity
  • 1585 -> Parry plot -> assassinate queen = accelerated parliamentary proceedings on bill to ensure queen's safety
  • 1586 -> Babington plot -> Mary complicit + plot to assassinate Elizabeth -> exposed by Walsingham = execution of Mary

Mary's trial and execution

  • Execution delayed 4 months by Elizabeth -> Burghley used parliamentary pressure to influence Elizabeth -> signed death warrant 1 February 1587
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Elizabeth I - Foreign affairs

Relations in the 1560s

  • Hawkins attempted to break Spanish trading in Caribbean -> September 1568 Hawkins' fleet blockaded in port of San Juan de Ulua = 2 ships escaped
  • Philip II wanted tighter political organisation in Netherlands -> Elizabeth under pressure to aid Dutch Protestants
  • English harassed Spanish -> November 1568, storm forced Spanish fleet carrying 400,000 florins for Duke of Alba to shelter in English ports -> Elizabeth impounded money

Netherlands and declining Anglo-Spanish relations, 1570-85

  • 1572 Elizabeth expelled Sea Beggars from English ports -> landed in Dutch port of Brielle -> occupation of port = full-scale revolt against Spain
  • 1576 all provinces of Netherlands rose against Spanish army -> Pacification of Ghent = called for expulsion of all foreign troops + restore provinces' autonomy -> favoured by Elizabeth -> provinces quarrelled + French prepared to invade
  • Division among provinces = 2 separate entities -> Union of Utrecht (northern + Protestant) + Union of Arras (southern + Catholic) -> Spanish made peace with Arras = Duke of Parma could begin reconquest of north
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Elizabeth I - Foreign affairs

  • 1580 Spain annex Portugal -> Elizabeth supported Portuguese pretender Don Antonio (member of Portuguese royal family) -> knighted Sir Francis Drake for circumnavigation of globe -> treated Spanish ambassador contemptuously
  • Dutch rebel leader (William of Orange) assassinated 1584
  • Philip II + Catholic League in France came to agreement -> Treaty of Joinville 1584 -> Philip II could now support Mary, Queen of Scots

Deterioration of Anglo-Spanish relations, 1585-87

  • Elizabeth made alliance with Dutch Protestant rebels -> Treaty of Nonsuch 1585 -> sent troops to Netherlands under Earl of Leicester -> troops alienated Dutch + Leicester quarrelled with Dutch -> Leicester returned to England

Spanish Armada

  • Organisation of expedition took 2 years -> Philip believed doing God's work through Catholic crusade
  • Armada = huge with many vessels + crews commandeered from Portuguese
  • Delayed -> successful English attacks on Spanish ships at Cadiz April 1587
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Elizabeth I - Foreign affairs

  • Objective = reach port of Gravelines so Duke of Parma's army board for invasion of England
  • Sighted off coast of Cornwall 29 July -> battled from 30 July-6 August -> forced return to Spain through hazardous route from north towards Scotland then south towards west Ireland -> more ships lost
  • Number of explanations -> Armada's leadership = questionable -> English exploited opportunities of weather (sent fireships to destroy anchored Armada -> English manoeuvrability + gunnery

Continuing war against Spain, 1558-1604

  • Continued 16 years -> peace after deaths of Elizabeth + Philip -> England in war for national + religious survival -> some councillors took 'minimalist' view (limited resources in Netherlands) -> others wanted expansive naval campaign + land campaign in Netherlands

War at sea

  • Small-scale naval attacks in Caribbean + Spain 1585 + 1587 -> 1595 only made 3 attacks on Spain = capture of Cadiz + sinking 4 galleons
  • Hawkins + Drake died attacking Panama
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Elizabeth I - Foreign affairs

  • Capturing Cadiz = humiliated Philip + stopped Spanish merchant vessels sailing to West Indies -> 1595 Philip ordered fleet to invade England = defeated by storms
  • Spanish tried to exploit rebellion in Ireland
  • Fear of invasion 1599 = panic in England -> navy activity directed towards stopping Spanish landings in Ireland

War in the Netherlands

  • After 1588 main arena for war = Netherlands
  • 1589 Sir Francis Vere made commander of English forces = positive relation with Dutch leader -> territories lost to Duke of Parma recovered
  • Cost of maintaining force in Netherlands = high -> Dutch paid share of cost
  • 1594 Spanish expelled from northern Netherlands -> northern Netherlands = independent state -> southern  Netherlands remained under Spanish sovereignty
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