Elizabeth I & Spain

  • Created by: NHow02
  • Created on: 09-05-19 12:14

1. Mary, Queen of Scots

Mary bequeathed her claims to the English throne to Philip II...

The Ridolfi Plot (1571):

- dynastic threat which plotted to release MQS + marry her to the Duke of Norfolk + restore Catholicism (Ridolfi acted as an intermediary between MQS, Bishop Ross & Spain)

Throckmorton Plot (1583):

financed by Spain and the Pope (Throckmorton acted as an intermediary between the Spanish Ambassador, Mary + Mendoza)

- Mary signed her name on the Bond of Association in 1583 drafted by Walsingham & Burghley (allowed signatories to assassinate any usurpers)

Mary was executed on 8th February 1487 eliminating the dynastic threat (despite this, Elizabeth allowed her to remain imprisoned for 19 years before reluctantly beheading her)

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2. Aggravation


- trade became more difficult in 1550 (a license was required to trade with Mexico, Peru, Chile & Caribbean after Spain had conquered them)                                      1. the bulk of English trade was done with illegal trade with Spain or was piratical

John Hawkins was financed by Cecil, Elizabeth + Leicester in 1564 to sell West African slaves to colonists in the New World (destroying peaceful trade with Spain)

- in 1568, Spanish relations deteriorated further (Elizabeth impounded 400,000 florins from a Genevan ship leading to a standstill in trade)

Sir Francis Drake:

- Drake attacked Cadiz successfuly in 1587 (destroying around 30 ships during the earlier stages of the Armada)

- in 1577, Elizabeth knighted Drake for circumnavigating the globe

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3. Netherlands

- 3/4 of England's overseas trade pased through Antwerp (over 3/4 on woollen cloth)

Spanish Expansion:

- Philip banned the import of English cloth (he thought Elizabeth was spreading Protestantism by supporting rebels)

1578, Pacification of Ghent calls for removal of foreign troops (Elizabeth loans £100,000 + another £100,000 is given to Alencon in 1580)   

Protestant Symbol:

- 1566, outbreak of Dutch Revolt between religions (Calvinist riots led Philip to send a vast army in 1567 under the Duke of Alva, later increasing to 50,000)                     1. Assassination of William of Orange in 1584 - need for military action                     2. In 1579, 7 Northern provinces declared Protestant 

- Elizabeth feared the army's influence would reach England (she expelled Dutch see beggars in 1572, but continues to aid Dutch rebels unofficially in 1573 - allowing privateers to close the channel to Spanish ships)

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