Elizabeth I & Rebellion

  • Created by: cieran32
  • Created on: 09-11-18 23:52

The Northern Rebellion

Two northern noblemen, the Earl of Westmorland and the Earl of Northumberland, led a rebellion against Elizabeth.

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Causes of rebellion

  • Elizabeth I refused to let the Duke of Norfolk marry her Catholic cousin, Mary Queen of Scots.
    • Many nobles in the north of England were Catholics and were hostile to the Protestants from the South who controlled many of affairs in the north.
  • Two northern noblemen, the Earl of Westmorland and the Earl of Northumberland, led a rebellion against Elizabeth
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course of rebellion

  • Elizabeth I had confiscated a lot of land from the Earl of Northumberland. She had then given this land to his principal rival in the north and a Protestant nobleman from the south.
  • In November 1569, the two Earls held an illegal Catholic mass in Durham Cathedral. 4,600 men marched with them as they headed south.
    • The loyalist Earl of Sussex raised troops against them and they dispersed
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consequences of rebellion

  • Elizabeth I executed Northumberland and Westmorland escaped to France. The Duke of Norfolk was imprisoned.
  • The plot had tried to maintain the northern nobles’ independence. In fact, it led to increased repression and government control in the region.
  • Henry Hastings, a Puritan, was installed as leader of the Council of the North (which helped to govern the region)
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Essex's Rebellion

Lots of people thought women could not rule and this created problems. The Earl of Essex led an important rebellion in 1601 against Elizabeth.

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Causes of rebellion

  • Essex had successfully led the forces which attacked the Spanish port of Cadiz in 1596.
  • When he returned, an argument at court resulted in Elizabeth hitting him on the head after he turned his body away from her.
    • He had to be restrained by fellow courtiers and was placed under house arrest
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Essex in Ireland

Essex was sent to Ireland but failed to deal with the rebellion there and fell out of favour.

  • He lost his sweet wine monopoly, and with it power and influence
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course of rebellion

  • Because of his fall from favour, he gathered forces to lead a rebellion. He took four privy councillors hostage in February 1601.
  • His rival Robert Cecil called him a traitor, and many of his approximately 200 supporters deserted him. Essex was arrested along with his remaining followers.
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consequences of rebellion

This was the final challenge to Elizabeth’s authority and it was defeated easily

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Tyrone's Rebellion

The Earl of Tyrone, Hugh O'Neill, led a rebellion against the Crown. Lasting for nine years, this rebellion seriously threatened Elizabeth's authority in Ireland.

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Causes of rebellion

  • Relations between Ireland and England had been strained from when Edward VI started his policy of plantation (where the Crown took land in Ireland and colonised it with English settlers).
    • So Ireland was England's first colony.
  • Hostility grew in response to this colonisation.
  • Ireland was also a Catholic country. Tensions developed following the English's attempts to impose Protestantism.
  • The Earl of Tyrone and other Irish lords wanted to rid Ireland of the English settlers
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course of rebellion

  • The rebellion began in 1593.
  • In 1598, the Earl of Tyrone and his forces defeated English troops at the Battle of Yellow Ford.
  • The Earl of Essex was sent in 1599 to deal with the rebellion. But he failed to control the rebels in Ireland. He made a truce and returned to England with the queen’s consent.
  • Elizabeth I then sent Lord Mountjoy, who eventually defeated the rebellion in 1603
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consequences of rebellion

  • The Earl of Essex's failure to stop Tyrone's rebellion led to his loss of influence at court. He proceeded to launch his own rebellion against the Crown in 1601.
  • Elizabeth I's successor, James I would deal with the leaders of the rebellion
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