Effects Of Exercise

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  • Created by: Katherine
  • Created on: 02-04-13 21:23

Short-Term Effects

The Cardiovascular System:

  • The heart rate increases, so more blood is pumped to working muscles
  • Vascular Shunt Mechanisms operates. e.g when an athlete sprints some blood is directed away form internal organs and to working muscles in the legs.
  • Cardiac output increases
  • Stroke volume increases

The Respiratory System:

  • Breathing rate rises
  • Tidal Volume increases
  • Minute volume increases

The Muscular System:

  • Increase in muscle fatigue
  • Increase in muscle temperature
  • Increased flexability around the joints
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Long-Term Effects

The Cardiovascular System:

  • Lower resting heart rate - enabling us to do more each day and to carry longer and harder exercise.
  • Cardiac output increases - enabling us to be more energetic and healthy
  • Stroke volume increases - enabling more oxygen to be used by our working mucles
  • Cardiac hypertrophy - making our hearts healthier and reducing risk of heart disease
  • Increase in blood capillaries - enables a higher oxygen intake
  • Decrease in resting blood pressure - reduces risk of heart disease
  • Increase in haemoglobin - increase oxygen available, enabling prolonged periods of exercise.

The Respiratory System:

  • Increase in vital capacity/lung volume - enabling a larger uptake of oxgygen needed in respiartaion, which therfore releases more energy
  • More rapid rate of recovery after a programme of regular exercise
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Long-Term Effects

The Muscular System:

  • Muscle hypertrophy - mucles bigger and stronger, so can achieve a greater force of movement
  • Aerobic adaptions enlarge slow-twitch fibres, whcih gives greater potential for energy production. Achieved through activities such as running and swimming.
  • Anerobic adaptions.enlarge fast-twitch fibres, which strengthens mucsles making them more efficient. Achieved through activities such as sprinting or weight lifting.
  • Increase tolerance to lactic acid.due to higher VO2 max, meaning the onset of ftigue is delayed.
  • Improves the muscle cells capability of using oxygen more efficiently, so more energy is available and more work can be done. 
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Maintaining and Developing the Health of Muscles

Expalin, using practical examples, how a healthy, active lifestyle can maintain and develop the health of muscles.

  • Increase the elasticity of muscles. e.g. stretching during warm ups.
  • Muscles use hypertrophy to build more fibres. e.g. exercise classes.
  • Reduces risk of injury e.g. regualr exercise maintain muscles.
  • Increases speed e.g. can run more efficiently
  • More endurance e.g. can keep going. 
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