Effect of lifestyle on health

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  • Created by: J.E.C.
  • Created on: 04-05-14 11:55

Measuring risk, lifestyles choices & cancer

Risk = A measure of the probability that damage to health will occur as a result of a given hazard

Two elements of risk: probability hazardous event will occur & consequences of that event

Measured by comparing liklihood of harm occurring in those exposed to a hazard with those who are not exposed to it.

Lifestyle choices & Cancer

> Smoking: smokers and passive smokers (breathe tobacco) have an increased risk

> Diet: a low-fat, high-fibre diet rich in fruit & veg reduces risk

> Obesity: Being overweight increases risk

> Physical activity: those who take regular exercise tend to be at lower risk than those who do not from some types of cancer

> Sunlight: more exposure to sunlight/sunbeds increases risk of skin cancer

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Coronary Heart Disease

Lifestyle factors

Smoking - smoker are between 2 & 6 times more likely to develop CHD

High blood pressure - excessive stress, poor diet, lack of exercise

Blood cholesterol - caused by diet high in saturated fatty acids

Obesity - BMI of above 25 = increased risk of CHD

Diet = hish levels of salt increases BP and high levels of saturated fatty acids increase Blood Cholesterol. Need foods high in dietry fibre to reduce risk of CHD.

Physical Activity - aerobic exercise lowers BP and BC & helps avoid obesity = lowers risk of CHD

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Reducing the risk of CHD and Cancer

> Give up / do not take up smoking

> Avoid becoming overweight

> Reduce salt intake

> Reduce cholesterol intake / saturated fats

> Take regular aerobic exercise

> Keep alcohol consumption within safe limits

> Increase intake of dietry fibres / antioxidants

One in two long-term smokers die early asa result of smoking

Smokers make up 98% of emphysema cases

A regular smoker is three time more likely to die prematurely than a non-smoker

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Correlations and experimental evidence

> Man smoking 25 cigarettes a day, is 25 time more likely to develop lung cancer than a non-smoker

> When a person stops smoking their risk decreases to that of a non-smoker after around 10-15 years

> The death rate from lung cancer is 18 times higher in smokers than non-smokers

Cigarette smoke analysed > tar found to be a carcinogen > benzopyrene (constituent of tar) found to mutate DNA > BP absorbed by epithelial cells and converted to derivative > binds to gene and mutates it > led to uncontrolled cell growth > tumour

Government action on smoking > Raising taxes on tobacco > Banning tobacco advertising

> Health warnings on tobacco products > Ban smoking in public places

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