educational attainment and social class

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  • Created by: lxigh
  • Created on: 27-03-19 09:36

theoretical explanations

functionalism - claim that the w/c fail bc schools are meritocratic, and thus they must not be the best pupils

marxism - believe that the education system exists to legitimise r/c power, so the education system is biased against the w/c, existing only to oppress the poorer pupils

interactionism - tends to view schols as m/c institutions and teachers label w/c children as failures, these children then live upto their labels

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material deprivation

- lack of money to buy possessions

- Smith & Noble (1995) - poorer parents cannot afford additional resourses such as books, computers, space to work etc

- poorer housing quality means poorer children take more ill health absense

- Feinstein (2003) - there is a link between poor nutrition, particularly during pregnancy, and educational underachievement

- Deprivation and Education (gov. data) (2009) - suggested family stress was a significant contribution to failure

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cultural deprivation

- w/c have 'less' culture than m/c

- Bernstein - the problem is caused by language - restriced/elaborated code

- Douglas (1960s) - w/c parents don't value education and do not read to their children

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cultural capital

- Bourdieu (1970s) - m/c people possess knowledge and use it to benefit their children eg how to influence school policy, which schools get the best ecam results, how to talk to teachers to gain advantage

- w/c people don't have access to these skills and can't support their children in the same way

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cultural reproduction theory

- Bowles & Gintis (1976) - schools are m/c institutions and pass on the norms & values of capiatlist society, therefore schools socialise children, but only to produce workers for society

- correspondence principle - education mirrors the workplace - alienation, heirarchy, fragmentation, competition, divisions

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school organisation

- Parliamentary Select Commitee (2014) - the problem lies with schools themselves - w/c children in schools rated 'oustanding' are 2x more likely to get 5A*-C grades than in 'satisfactory'/'inadequate' schools

--  schools should aim to recruit high quality teachers, schools in poorer areas have less funding

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labelling theories and self-fulfilling prophecy

- Becker (1952) supported labelling

- Bail (1981) said schools stream kids based on behaviour, not ability

- Goodacre (1986) - w/c children are undermarked

- Safia-Mirza - heavily criticises - kids can and do regect labels

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subcultures and peer groups

- children who find it difficult to succeed on the terms that the school sets form social groups that reject the norms of the school

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