compulsory primary education
- before 1870 education not free - churches/charities may pay
- gov. decided universal education necessary for competitive work force - encouraged school boards to set yp elementary schools with basic curriculum
- could charge up to 9p/week, not all attended, compulsary for all kids up to age 10 by 1880
- became free 1891
- leaving age raised to 14 by 1918
- those who could afford followed on to grammar/public school for academic secondary education
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the tripartite system
- 1944 gov. provided secondary schools for all.
- age 11 students took intelligience test - 20% passed and attended grammar with academic curriculum and O+A levels
- those who failed went to secondary modern with practical curriculum - no leaving exams, teachers protested and CSE introduced(eaqsier than O-level)
- minority attended technical schools(few built)
- all types schools should have had some status, parity of esteem
- many felt failure, particularly late developers
- left-wingers believe m/c children more likely to pass 11+, so system socially divisive. campaigned for mixed ability schools.
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- 1965 Labour gov bought in first comps, asking L.A's to merge secondary modern + grammar
- most did - but was expensive, and Cons. halted it when in power
- comprehensivisation halted and resumed with each change of government until 1997, when new Labour came to power
- New Labour more concerned about raising standards + parental choice than closing grammar
- over 160 grammars remained when coalition took over 2010
- at comps easy for late bloomers to move between sets
- In forms, members of diff social classes likely to mix
- no sense of failing entrance test - still lose motivation in lower streams
- teachers subconciously pick students for sets based on social class/ethnicity
- large size of comps vast facilities but impersonal, and discipline problems
- comprehensives left to pick up left-overs when grammar or public schools nearby. Lack of able students may fail to stretch already attending able students, depresses overall results
- comps vary in intake based on catchment area
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- 1960's - many schools adopted 'progressive' education
- reaction against 'jug and mug' lessons where students were fed facts from a teacher
- primary schools favoured large open plan classrooms where students could choose activities(pupil centered learning)
- encouraged students to think for themsleves, but many avoided maths and English
- some left school without basic skills, and were unable to work, so the policy had to change.
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the 'new vocationalism'
- 1976 Labour PM made speech that ignited 'the great debate' about whether current unemployment crisis would be alleviated if education became more vocational
- vocational courses introduced shortly after
- 1983 - schools funded by Technical and Vocational Educational Initiative(TVEI) to organise work experience in school time.
- schools encouraged to teach technology
- 1992 General National Vocational Qualifications(GNVQ's) introduced in areas such as Health and Social Care, Business studies, ICT and Leisure+Tourism. rename applied GCSE's and A-levels to make more attractive
- vocational courses continue to have lower status than academic courses, so uptake low.
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ERA(1988) - Enrolment, Ranking, Attained Tests(SAT
- conservative legislation
- raised standards and created identicle curriculum across country
- before this, schools could teach classes not sitting external exams anything they wanted
- national curriculum age 5-16 followed by all state schools
- English, Maths, Science core subjects occupty 30-40% of teaching time
- seven foundation subjects including technology+language must be taught - list since slimmed, but IT and citizenship added
- standardised attainment tests(SATS) in English, Maths, Science at age 7,11,14,16 to see if students met attainment targets
- results published in league tables to encourage schools to work harder
- tests at 5 been added to measure 'value added'
- four-yearly inspections by OFSTED ensure reccomendations were followed
- open enrolement - parents could send pupils to any unselective school that had places, schools had to compete for pupils. Previously based on catchment area.
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ERA(1988) - Enrolment, Ranking, Attained Tests
- formula funding - schools recieved funding based on number of students attracted. failing schools closed due to lack funding - succesful ones grew.
- city technology colleges created - emphasised IT and technology, worked with local business
- national curriculum made easy for students who moved schools
- ensures all students study science to 16, girls previously dropped.
- better prepared for work by studying core subjects + ICT/Technology/language
- testing informs parents of progress but can take away from other studies - KS3 recently dropped for this reason
- some schools appear low on league tables despite high value added
- early league tables gave raw scores - didn't take schools social circumstances into account. recent attempts to add special needs and value added still provide incomplete picture.
- non acadmeic studies do not show on league tables
- good schools that fail to impress parents recieve less funding, less money to improve, downward spiral, demoralise teachers.
- schools become marketised, spending lots on impressing parents - when money should be spent on pupils
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ERA(1988) - Enrolment, Ranking, Attained Tests
- to rank well in league tables, school may choose more able students
- Gilborn and Youdell(2000) - schools gave more hope to those on borderline of 5 A*-C GCSE's, high flyers + hopelessly neglected
- power shifted away from schools to parents, freedom of choice - parentocracy + raising standards
- Ball and Gerwitz - some parents more choice - transport, knowledge league tables/OFSTED reports
- teachers do probably work harder to ensure students well prepared for tests+exams - may increase student motivation
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introduction of GCSE's(1988)
- O-levels and CSE's replaced in 1988 by GCSE's
- avoided teachers having to guess at students' potential when they were only 14
- increased equality of opportunity
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- 4 or 5 AS levels should be studied in year 12 - breadth of knowledge
- year 13 most students continue 3 subjects to A2 to achieve depth of knowledge
- key skill qualifications - communication, ICT, application of number - key skills valued by employers
- studying 4AS + 3A2 scarecly broadens knowledge
- AS levels add extra year of exam stress and reduce teaching time
- lack of time caused many schools to drop key skills, the vocational element. Some recently taken up critical thinking.
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changes in secondary qualifications
- since 2008 another vocational qualification available at some schools/colleges, the 14-19 diploma, study of work-related subject in practical setting with general learning, work experience and research project
- UCAS wary of them and academic students avoid them
- schools encourage students to take extended project part of the qualification
- Michael Gove invitied universities to suggest jpw A-levels can be made more rigorous
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Education Action Zone(EAZ)
- 1998, new labour
- additional funding given to L.A's in disadvantaged areas, to set up breakfast+homework clubs, literacy+numeracy schemes, master classes, special needs teaching, mentors
- intended to increase equality of opportunity
- compensatory education make superficial improvements compared with addresses child poverty
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- centers for pre-school children & their parents
- helped deprived children develop intellectual and social skills of the m/c
- many closed in coalition cuts
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Education Maintenance Allowance(EMA)
- Labour, 1999
- weekly allowance, 16-19 year olds, low income families, full time education
- promote equality by offsetting the costs of staying on at school instead of seeking paid employment
- 2010 coalition replace with much smaller number of students in greater need
- critics suggest it was a ploy to save money and has disadvantaged many students
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different types of schools
- result of parental choice policy establish by ERA
- specialist schools recieve extra findiong to extend teaching in science, technology, or drama
- 2002 - first city academy open - replace failing comprehensive, state funded but private investment allowed and gave power over staff + curriculum etc, allowed to select up to 10% of students - criticised by left
- succesful schools recently encouraged to become academies funded directly from local gov. - not obliged to follow all aspects of national curriculum
- first free school opened 2011 - set up for any age group in area where parents feel there are no schools that meet their requirements - gov. funded but semi independent, can choose own curriculum, hours, holidays
- free schools reflect gov. view that variety of schools will raise standards
- free schools and academies may draw funding from other schools
- decisions about what schools need to be in an area and how much funding they recieve should be decided by local authorities to increase equality of provision
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education policies exam tip
- make sure you know educational policy behind each change and it's aims:
- to increase equality?
- raise academic standards?
- increase vocational skills?
- memorise when initiatives began, questions tend to be "after X date"
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