- This is when we aquire basic values, views and skills for success in education by the primary socialisation of the family.
- Cultural equipment is basics like language, self-discipline etc.
- Some theorist say W.Class families fail to socialise children. lacking the cultural equipment for success at school.
- This = cultural deprivation, aspects include language, parents's education and W.Class subculture.
- The way parents speak to child influences their development.
- E.g. when parents made child question themselves on understanding saying 'What do you think?' the child's intellect improved.
- But educated parents most likely use this.
- Less educated made child describe saying 'What's this animal called?
- Also language used in lower-class homes is deficient.
- This affects child as they lack a head start before school.
- Speech codes is also how language between W.Class and M.Class difference affect achievement.
- The Restricted Code - Working class use limited vocabulary and use short simple sentences. Speech involves gesture and single word predictable answers. It's describing, not analysing.
- The Elaborated Code - Middle class use wide vocabulary and complex sentences. This is more analyitc than describing.
- This gives middle class an advantage in school as the Elaborated code is used by teachers.
- If children are brought up with this then school may feel like home.
- How Parents see education affects child.
- E.g. Study found W.Class families less valued education and therefore gave less encouragement.
- Didn't discuss child progress with teachers, gave child less motivation.
- Middle Class are better educated and know how to socialise children.
- How Parent's style matters
- Educated parent's emphasise constitant discipline and high expectations which encourages active learning
- Less educated parent's style is more harsh and inconsistant discipline like doing as your told prevents child from learning independence which leads to poor motivation.
- How Parent's See education
- Educated parents are aware on how to help child's educational progress.
- They help with reading, teaching letters and numbers and helping with homework.
- These parents have good relations with the school.
- How Parents use Income.
- Educated parents spend money in way that boost educational success.
- E.g. Middle-Class mothers bought educational toys and books.
- Nutrition is also provided for.
- W.Class lack these resources.
- Many aren't equally successful.
WORKING CLASS SUBCULTURE:
- Lack of parental interest in child's education shows the subculture values of W.Class.
- Subculture = a group who's views and goals are different than the main.
- W.Class have different goals which is why their children fail.
- Barry Sugarman says subculture has 4 values that stop educational success.
- Fatalism - Fate decides your status and you can't change it.
- Collectivism - Being part of a group, not individuality.
- Immediate Gratification - Want rewards now rather than sacrificing and patience.
- Present-time orientation - Present is more important than the future and making short term goals.
- These values exist because Middle Class jobs are more secure for prospects with more achievement but W.Class jobs are less secure with few promotion opportunities.
- These are programmes that help tackle the Cultural Deprivation problem.
- They try to provide extra resources and interfere early in the socialisation process.
- E.g. Operation Head Start in the USA and Sure Start, Education Action Zone in UK.
- Sesame Street was apart of head start which sharedvalues, improved skills etc.
IS CULTURAL DEPRIVATION A MYTH?
- Is Child's Social background irrelevant?
- Some say that W.Class children aren't culturally deprived but different.
- W.Class fail as education suits the Middle Class.
- Schools should challenge teachers of the prejudice.
- Child's language isn't the problem but Schools attitude who have a speech hierarchy. Middle Class speech highest, then W.Class, then Black Speech.
- Some say it's not that W.Class don't take interest but they don't have time, e.g. Parent's evening.
- Cultural Deprivation is about W.Class, beliefs/culture and Subculture.
- Material Deprivation is about Poverty, lack of material that's vital e.g. Income and housing.
- E.g. Poverty links to underachievement in Education.
- Department of Education said a 3rd of people on Free school meals will barely get 5+ GCSEs.
- Family problems affect attendance.
- Majority of failing schools are in poor areas.
- Poor housing affects child.
- If overcrowded, child can't study, do homewrok, sleep.
- Families in temporary housing may keep moving which is unstable.
- Poor housing also affects health and welfare.
- Cold/damp housing leads to illness, temporary housing leads to stress, health problems affect attendance.
DIET AND HEALTH:
- Child is poverty has lack of energy, vitimins and minerals.
- Lack of nutrition causes illness, causing absence and difficulty paying attention in school.
- May have behaviour problems like hyperactivity and anxiety which affects education.
- Low income families have more fighting and tantrums which affects child's schooling.
FINANCIAL SUPPORT AND COST OF EDUCATION:
- Poor children lack educational equipment.
- The Cost of Free Schooling is that things like transport, books, computers and uniforms are costly to poor families.
- Many children then borrow or aren't up to date where they may be bullied.
- E.g. 20% of those on Free school meals get teased and therefore abandon their entitlement.
- Lack of money may mean the children also need to work.
FEAR OF DEBT:
- Going to University results in fear of debt which deters W.Class students.
- A study by Nationwd showed how W.Class students saw debt to be avoided and looked at University via it's costs, not benefits.
- Increased tuition fees after 2012 may deter more W.Class.
- If W.Class do go to University they lack financial support from families.
- Only 30% of W.Class go to University.
- Financial factors affect University too.
- Many W.Class may apply to local universities in order to live at home and save travel costs.
- This stops them from going to high-end unversities, e.g. 17% in London Met.
CULTURAL VS MATERIAL:
- Only some poor families have children who do succeed which means material deprivation gives half the answer.
- Some say tackling child poverty may boost achievement.
- Bourdieu uses this to describe language, views, values and skills of Middle Class.
- Middle class culture is a captial as it benefits them at school
- Because of this, Middle class children can analyse and express ideas, developing intellect.
- Middle Class children know what to do to succeed at school.
- Their interests are rewarded with qualifications as education favors middle class culture.
- But W.Class children think school devalue their culture.
- They lack cultural capital and therefore fail.
EDUCATIONAL AND ECONOMIC CAPITAL
- All 3 capitals can be converted into 1.
- E.g. Cultural capital allows better preparation for school demands and get qualifications.
- Wealthy can covert economic capital into educational capital by sending children to private school and paying for extra tuition.
- Houses near school high in league tables cost a lot, excluded W.Class families.