Edexcel cheistry C1b topic 3

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What are acids?

Acids have a low Ph (1-6) corosive when strong. Irritant when weak.

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Neutralisation reaction

An acid and a base react together to form a salt and water. The proucts of this reaction are neutral.

acid + base-------> salt + water.       The salts are used in fertilisers and fireworks.

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Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid (Hcl)  is produced by the stomach and helps indigestion. Stomach acid also kills bacteria. Indigestion is caused by too much hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Indigestion tablets contain bases such as calcium carbonate which neutralise the acid

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Indigestion tablets


1) Dissolve an indigestion tablet in water in a conical flask.

2) Add 3 drops of universal indicator.

3) Fill a burette with acid and add it in slowly giving it a gentle swirl.

4) When the indicator changes colour the alkali has been neutralised.

5) Read the burette to find the volume of acid you have added.

6) Repeat experiment 3 times to improve results

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Reactions of acids

acid + metal oxide ---> salt + water       acid + metal hydroxide ----> salt +water

hydrochloric acid + copper oxide ----> copper chloride + water

hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide ---> sodium chloride + water

sulphuric acid + zinc oxide -----> zinc sulphate + water

sulphuric acid + calcium hydroxide -----> calcium sulphate +water

nitric acid + magnesium oxide ---> magnesium nitrate +water

nitric acid + potassium hydroxide ---> potassium nitrate +weater

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Electrolysis: decomposition of compounds using electrical energy from a direct current such as a battery. Electricity is applied using elctrodes it requires a liquid to conduct the electricity. The electrolyte containsthe compound broken down into component partsand released asatoms or molecules such as a gas. you can electrolyse hydrochloric acid.

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Testing for...............

Chlorine- chlorine bleaches damp litmus paper white

Hydrogen: makes a squeky pop with a lighted splint

Oxygen: relights a glowing splint

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Electrolyisis of salt

Sea water/brine can be decomposed by electrolysis to produce chlorine gas. Chlorine gas is toxic it can be used for:

Treating water supplies

manufacturing bleach and poly(chloroethene) -PVC

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Thank you

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